Sign In

Forget password

Sign Up
SIGN IN WITH
 

Go To Login

RETRIEVE PASSWORD  

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE THROUGH CLASSICAL METHOD AND OPTICAL, THERMAL REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

Surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological and atmospheric processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous hydrological and environmental studies. Advance in technology shown that soil moisture can be measured by a variety of ground-based and remote sensing techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This work presents a comprehensive review of the progress of surface soil moisture retrieval approaches. Approaches for surface soil moisture estimation from ground-based point measurements to space-based optical, thermal, measurements are presented in this review study. In ground-based approaches, the physical principles and comparative study on three basic scales; cost, accuracy and response time, have been discussed. Measured parameters, limitations and drawbacks of different techniques have also been summarized. Spacebased approaches review study has been divided in two classes depending on data types; optical, thermal. Limitations existing in current soil moisture estimation methods have been also discussed. This review focused only on advanced optical and thermal remote sensing methods for soil moisture retrieval.

by G. Shukla and P. K. Garg
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF SLOPE, SOIL, AND AMC OF A FALLOW LAND ON RUNOFF CURVE NUMBER

Since the inception of SCS-CN methodology, no systematic efforts appear to have been made to verify CN-validity to watersheds in other countries. Besides, slope was excluded in its original development, but it is included as a factor in the recently developed physically based models. A study was conducted on an agricultural (fallow land) experimental watershed (size: 22mx5m) located near Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India, to evaluate the effect of slope, soil type, and antecedent moisture content (AMC) on the runoff curve number for the selected three grades of 5%, 3% and 1% with Hydrologic Soil Groups (HSG) A, B, and A, respectively. The computed CN II values for the plots of grades 5%, 3% and 1% are 81.46, 85.62 & 82.14 respectively. Plot of grade 3% showed the highest runoff and CN rather than others although coefficient of determination between rainfall and runoff was highest for grade 5% (R2 = 0.933). Soil was found to affect CN more prominently than did slope.

by Ranjit Kumar Jha , S. K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    NASH IUH PARAMETERS ESTIMATION USING METHOD OF MOMENTS- A CASE STUDY
    R.B. Magar and V. Jothiprakash

    Flood forecasting plays an important role in mitigating the natural disaster. Among the available methods for flood forecasting, the unit hydrograph (UH), and instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is widely and successfully used. In case of IUH it is ...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

NASH IUH PARAMETERS ESTIMATION USING METHOD OF MOMENTS- A CASE STUDY

Flood forecasting plays an important role in mitigating the natural disaster. Among the available methods for flood forecasting, the unit hydrograph (UH), and instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is widely and successfully used. In case of IUH it is assumed that the hydrograph generation was affected by number of ?n? linear reservoirs having similar/same storage coefficient ?K? value. The IUH proposed by Nash has been widely used in rainfall-runoff (RR) simulation as well as for flood forecasting. However the success of application of Nash IUH model is based on the accuracy of the estimated parameters ?n? and ?K? for a given catchment. This study describes the development and application of Nash IUH for the Koyna watershed in Maharashtra, India. The parameters are estimated using method of moments (MOM). This IUH may be useful for predicting the flash flood in to the reservoir for a given rainfall. The obtained direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) estimated from IUH derived is compared with the observed DRH and found to be in good agreement with each other. The performance of the IUH model has been assessed using coefficient of correlation (R), Root mean square error (RMSE), error in peak inflow prediction (%MF) and time to peak flow.

by R.B. Magar and V. Jothiprakash
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

NEURAL NETWORK TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTION OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT AND DISCHARGE FOR A WEIR

Weirs are frequently used in irrigation, sewer networks and flood protection works for flow measurement, and flow control in the open channels. Sharp-crested weirs are the simplest form of over-flow spillways those are very commonly used to determine the flow rate in hydraulic laboratories, industry and irrigation systems, where accurate discharge measurements are must. This study aims to estimate coefficient of discharge and discharge of the sharp-crested triangular plan form weirs in the straight rectangular channel by using artificial neural network model. The performance of the feed forward back propagation neural networks is compared with linear regression model and non linear regression equation. Root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) are used for the evaluation of the models performance. A comparison of results indicated that the feed forward back propagation neural computing technique could be employed successfully in modeling coefficient of discharge and discharge for triangular form weirs.

by Arun Goel
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF CENTRAL MEGHALAYA
    Lala I. P. Ray , P. K. Bora , A. K. Singh , N. J. Singh , Ram Singh and S. M. Feroze

    Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed (around 60% of arable land) and monsoon plays a major role not only in agriculture but also in allied day to day activities. The knowledge amount of rainfall, number of rainy days and its distribution over the cro...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF CENTRAL MEGHALAYA

Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed (around 60% of arable land) and monsoon plays a major role not only in agriculture but also in allied day to day activities. The knowledge amount of rainfall, number of rainy days and its distribution over the cropping season are important for timely preparation of seed bed, selection of crop varieties, choice of cropping pattern. Rainfall analysis with advanced statistical methods using computer programming and software bring out many features which can be directly used for crop planning, landwater management, aquaculture and floriculture planning etc. The analysis of 28 years (1983-2010) daily rainfall data of Nongstoin station, of central Meghalaya has been done for determining the characteristics of rainfall and probability of occurrence of normal weekly rainfall.

by Lala I. P. Ray , P. K. Bora , A. K. Singh , N. J. Singh , Ram Singh and S. M. Feroze
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW
    Saroj Acharya , Ashish Pandey and U.C. Chaube

    In this study review of the Geographic Information System (GIS) based system/tools for irrigation management has been carried out. A brief review of customization of ArcGIS as irrigation management tool is also presented. Need and potential of develo...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

In this study review of the Geographic Information System (GIS) based system/tools for irrigation management has been carried out. A brief review of customization of ArcGIS as irrigation management tool is also presented. Need and potential of development of the GIS based irrigation management tools to visualize and analyze irrigation management data is discussed in detail. This technique can be employed to develop thematic maps of irrigation requirements to be used by decision-makers. The relevant review literature indicates that GIS is versatile tool that can be used to provide an appropriate framework for manipulating, analyzing and visualizing spatial data and produce results in the form of map, table and graph to support planning and decision making process in irrigation management. Review of various studies revealed that GIS can be customized effectively to develop a tool capable of simulating irrigation water requirements spatially, useful in decision making process in irrigation management.

by Saroj Acharya , Ashish Pandey and U.C. Chaube
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
Membership Required

Only paid member's can view generals, Please contact administrator for membership.