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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

CHARACTERIZATION OF POINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF RIVER HINDON USING WATER QUALITY INDEX

River Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna flowing through the districts of Western Uttar Pradesh, is subjected to varying degree of pollution caused by numerous untreated and/or partially treated waste inputs of municipal and industrial effluents. In the present investigation, assessment of the water quality characteristics of different point sources contributing river Hindon has been carried out by collecting water and wastewater samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons during the year 2012. Maximum value of BOD (261 mg/L) was observed in Star Paper Mill Drain. The higher values of BOD and COD observed in the drains indicate high degree of organic pollution rendering the water unsuitable even for bathing purpose. At almost all sites of the upstream and mid-section of the river Hindon, DO was observed to be 0 mg/L because of high organic load in the river water. BOD and COD concentration in river Hindon varies from 3.3 to 65 mg/L and 28 to 338 mg/L in pre-monsoon season while 0 to 139 mg/L and 24 to 388 mg/L in post-monsoon season respectively. Further water quality of river Hindon has been assessed using water quality index and the quality of river Hindon was observed to be bad at all site which may be attributed to untreated and/or partially treated waste inputs of municipal and industrial effluents joining the river.

by M. K. Sharma , C. K. Jain and Omkar Singh
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT AND HEAD-DISCHARGE RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

A glass sided tilting flow channel based laboratory study was carried out to determine the discharge coefficient and head-discharge relationships for hydraulic structures i.e.Broad Crested Weir, Crump Weir, Sluice gate, Radial Gate and Dam Spillway. The average value of Coefficient of Discharge for Broad Crested Weir, Crump Weir, Sluice Gate, Radial Gate and Dam Spillway was found to be 0.44, 0.85, 0.76, 0.82 and 1.03 respectively. Furthermore, the with h/a was linearly related and there was power relationship between Discharge and Head with ranging from 0.80 to 0.99 for all the structures under study.

by P. P. Dabral , P. K. Pandey , Tushar Kumar and Sourav Chakraborty
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, DELHI USING GROUNDWATER MODELING

National Capital Territory, Delhi in India is under the grip of extreme pressure to meet demand for its water resources due to urbanization, improvements in living standards, expanding population etc. Therefore, quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge is a pre-requisite for operating ground water resources system in an optimal manner and meet the demand. The main objective of this study was to predict groundwater recharge in NCT of Delhi. The methodology was achieved using numerical groundwater model (VISUAL MODFLOW, 4.3). MODFLOW model is derived from a combination of topology, soil type, land use, well location using geographic information systems (GIS). The model was calibrated and validated and then used to predict groundwater recharge. The output of the model was found to be in agreement with the earlier records. Moreover, the simulation results also show reasonable declination of water table elevations in the study area during the period of study.

by Vikrant Vishal , Sudhir Kumar and D.C.Singhal
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

GEOMORPHOLOGIC INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPHS FOR RIVERS IN ERITREA (EAST AFRICA)

Prediction of flood hydrograph is essential for the assessment of water availability, design of various hydraulic structures and watershed development and management. Different methods have been in practice in surface water hydrology for quite some time back. Derivation of unit hydrograph using rainfall and runoff data as well as synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) approaches and conceptual models for gauged and ungauged catchments are some of the efforts in this direction. Nonetheless, most of these have limitations for one or the other reasons. Thus, more recently, use of geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) coupled with other conceptual models has been proved to be the most successful approach for flood prediction from ungauged catchments. In this respect, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing image processing tools have been found to be helpful for the determination of geomorphologic characteristics on which entire GIUH development relies upon. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of GIUH based Nash model is tested on the upper Mereb-Gash sub-basin in Eritrea. Due to the uncertainties of the recorded rainfall data, direct surface runoffs are not computed with any of the approaches referred above. Rather, the GIUH based Nash model unit hydrograph (UH) is developed. However, comparisons of GIUH and SUH of the downstream catchment show that the computed peak discharges are higher in the case of the former.

by Anghesom Alemngus and B.S. Mathur
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR IRRIGATION USE IN RAJKOT DISTRICT, GUJARAT

The groundwater quality of Rajkot district in Gujarat State was assessed for irrigation water use. Twenty seven groundwater samples were considered for calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard ratio (MH), sodium percent (%Na), permeability index (PI), and Index Base Exchange (IBE) values. USSL based graphical classification of groundwater samples is also carried out. Results reveal that majority of sites have SAR < 10 indicating water class to be of excellent quality and 81.48 % samples have RSC less than the permissible 1.5. It is observed that 51.85 % samples have MH ratio values greater than 50. The presence of more magnesium in water than calcium increases the degree of magnesium saturation and deteriorates the soil structure and decrease soil productivity. It is found that 59.25% samples showed negative chloro alkaline indices ratios with an indirect Base Exchange reaction. In contrast 40.75% samples showed positive chloro alkaline indices indicating a direct Base Exchange reaction. Furthermore 70.37 % sites have (Ca2++Mg2+) >HCO3 - indicating as base exchanged-hardened waters while remaining 29.63% samples have HCO3 - > (Ca2++Mg2+) which may be referred as base exchanged-softened waters. It is recommended that for salinity control adequate arrangement of drainage and selection of crops with good tolerance is to be adopted.

by S.D.DHIMAN
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  • Jan, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 1
    HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BAITARNI RIVER BASIN
    Subhasis Mitra and Ashok Mishra

    Streamflow and sediment yield response to climate change in the Baitarni river basins (BRB), Eastern India; has been investigated employing SWAT (Soil and Water Asessment Tool) model. Model was calibrated and validated by comparing measured streamflo...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BAITARNI RIVER BASIN

Streamflow and sediment yield response to climate change in the Baitarni river basins (BRB), Eastern India; has been investigated employing SWAT (Soil and Water Asessment Tool) model. Model was calibrated and validated by comparing measured streamflow and associated sediment concentration at Anandpur gauging station, located inside the river basin. Climate change impact analyses were performed by- i) assuming scenarios of increased temperature (+2 o C, +4 o C and +6 o C), varied rainfall (?20% at ?5% increment) and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (330 ppm, 495 ppm and 660 ppm); and ii) by extending historical rainfall (1974 to 2004) trend in future from 2005 to 2099. The trend analysis has shown that average annual rainfall at the Baitarni river basin has increased by 8.8 mm per year in the last 30 years which has resulted to an increase in streamflow in the river basin. Climate change sensitivity showed an increasing streamflow to independent increase in rainfall whereas showed decreasing streamflow to decreased rainfall and increased temperature in the basin. The increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations, independently, showed an increase in streamflow. The analysis shows that the water availability at the Baitarni river basin is expected to increase in future under linear increase in rainfall since historic and expected increasing rainfall trend persisting in future. The predicted future scenarios developed by SWAT model gave the normalized daily rainfall distribution and was unable to catch the expected extreme rainfall conditions. This characteristic of predicted rainfall showed that the method used to study and estimate future water resources does not hold good for the estimation of sediment yield.

by Subhasis Mitra and Ashok Mishra
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