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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

WATER QUALITY AND EUTROPHICATION STATUS OF THE RENUKA LAKE, DISTRICT SIRMAUR (H.P.)

The regular monitoring and assessment of lake water quality and its eutrophication is very important for proper conservation and management purposes. Water quality monitoring and analysis of the Renuka lake was carried out for various physico-chemical, bacteriological and trace elements during 2006 to 2008. The principal component analysis of 26 water quality parameters was performed which reveals seven principal components (eigen values greater than 1) explaining 86% of variability. These components are: (i) TDS, (ii) Hardness, (iii) Bacteriological (FC & TC), (iv) Eutrophication (Phosphate, Nitrate), (v) Dissolved Oxygen, (vi) Cadmium, and (vii) BOD, respectively. The lake water quality was assessed as per BIS standards for drinking purpose, which has shown the mean concentration of total coliform, faecal coliform, iron, manganese, lead and cadmium beyond the permissible limits for drinking purpose. The eutrophication of the Renuka lake follows a decreasing trend from hypertrophic to eutrophic indicating necessity of regular measures for conservation and restoration.

by Omkar Singh and M.K. Sharma
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSE, DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

The ground water quality of District Nainital has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two part series paper. In an earlier paper, we have examined the suitability of ground water for drinking purpose. This paper examines the suitability of ground water for irrigation applications. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analysed for various water quality characteristics. The suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose has been evaluated based on salinity, Sodium Adsorption Ration (SAR), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and boron content. In general the ground water of District Nainital is safe for irrigation purpose. According to U.S. Salinity Laboratory classification of irrigation water, about 90 % of the samples fall under water type C2-S1, such water can be safely used if a moderate amount of leaching occurs and plants with moderate salt tolerance can be grown in most cases without special practices for salinity control. About 10% samples fall under water type C3-S1, such water cannot be used on soils with restricted drainage. Even with adequate drainage special management for salinity control may be required and plants with good tolerance should be selected.

by C. K. Jain , A. Bandyopadhyay and A. Bhadra
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

INTER-COMPARISON OF REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ESTIMATED USING SIX METHODS WITH DATA FROM FOUR CLIMATOLOGICAL STATIONS IN INDIA

Evapotranspiration includes both evaporation from land surface and transpiration of water from plants, and constitutes a major component of hydrologic cycle. Therefore, its accurate estimation is of vital importance for hydrologic studies. Six empirical methods for calculating ET, namely, Hargreaves (Temperature based), FAO-24 Radiation, Priestley-Taylor and Turc (Radiation Based) and FAO-24 Penman and Kimberly-Penman (Combination) were evaluated using meteorological data from four climatological stations (Jagdalpur, Bombay, Bellary and Kharagpur) to determine the best and worst method for each location. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values estimated by all methods were compared with the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith ETo estimates, which were taken as the standard. Based on the Standard Error Estimates, the FAO-24 radiation method ranked first for the Jagdalpur and Bombay stations. The 1982 Kimberly-Penman ranked first for Kharagpur and Bellary.

by Biju A. George and N. S. Raghuwanshi
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

QUANTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE USING VISUAL HELP IN SONAR SUB-BASIN OF MADHYA PRADESH

In the present study, the groundwater recharge has been estimated at various locations in the Sonar sub-basin, which falls in the Bundelkhand region of the Madhya Pradesh. This basin is subjected to recurrent droughts. Although the basin receives good rainfall, it faces acute shortage of water due to uneven distribution of rain, and there exists scope of rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge for augmentation of water resources. In the present study, site specific recharge rates have been estimated using the Visual HELP model. The model uses soil profile data, vegetation information and weather data. The estimated natural groundwater recharge at twelve identified locations in the Sonar sub-basin is found to vary between 157 to 349 mm/year. The results of this study will be useful for the planning and management of groundwater resources of the Sonar sub-basin.

by Surjeet Singh, C.P. Kumar, Anupma Sharma and Rajan Vatsa
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

PREDICTION FOR IMPROVEMENT IN AGRICULTURE POTENTIAL AND FERTILITY OF SOIL IN NAJAFGARH AREA

The HRSEZ is proposing to occupy an area of 25000 acres of land partly in Gurgaon district and mostly in Jhajjar district. The Groundwater moves from all the directions towards the area. Hence water logging is very common feature in this region. According to agricultural qualities, the study area can be divided into several small areas namely Brick kiln, Ravines, High Salinity, Ravine Based agricultural land, Water logged and Deep Water Table Lands. The major portion of the study area is barren and not suitable for agriculture. Only 15% of the land area is under agricultural which is waterlogged too. Sub surface water logging could be identified as the major constraint to crop production. The water logging reduced the ear number and hence is the major contributor towards the yield difference. The ear numbers accounted for 66.6% of yield differences in cereals. The introduction of the canal system in Jhajjar District is mainly responsible for the existing water logging condition and soil salinization in 16% of the area. This is due to rising water table of saline water in major parts. Though this problem has assumed a serious proportion yet it is still possible to tackle it with careful planning. The Water Level Fluctuation in the area free from water logging is about 5m and in the water logged area the Water Level Fluctuation is very small amounting to 10-15cm. After establishment of HR-SEZ, there would be a requirement of 400-500 MLD of water. This would create a ground water trough in the region. Water logging can be removed due to this. The water level fluctuation in these areas would increase. For every 1m increase in Water Level Fluctuation, there would be about 33% increase in crop yield. Therefore for 5m increase in Water Level Fluctuation, there would be further increase in crop production. Apart from this after development of HR-SEZ, the amount of recycled water would be 480 MLD, which can irrigate much greater area than is possible presently. The quality of this water would be high in nitrogen and phosphorous which would increase the fertility of the soil which ultimately increase the crop production and types. In this way the creation of HR SEZ will not only beneficial to the industrialization but also good to the agriculture in the surrounding areas.

by Gauhar Mahmood , Ghazala Ishrat , Rajiv Kumar , Mahesh Agarwal
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  • Oct, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 3
    INTER-LINKING OF INDIAN RIVERS-NEED AND IMPORTANCE
    R.K. Sivanappan

    India is one of the few countries in the world endowed with reasonable land and water resources. Being a monsoon country the rainfall is erratic, unevenly distributed and hence water scarcity in some parts and floods in other parts frequently occur. ...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

INTER-LINKING OF INDIAN RIVERS-NEED AND IMPORTANCE

India is one of the few countries in the world endowed with reasonable land and water resources. Being a monsoon country the rainfall is erratic, unevenly distributed and hence water scarcity in some parts and floods in other parts frequently occur. In order to produce to feed the expected population of 1650 M in 2050, there is a need to bring about 150 M Ha under irrigation from 100 M Ha at present. As more than 65% of the flow in the rivers is not utilizable and goes to sea every year, it is necessary to interlink all the rivers in the North and South to provide water to the deficit basins. Government has created a National Water Development Agency (NWDA) to study and implement the programme. The perspective plan comprises two components namely i) Himalayan rivers Development and ii) Peninsular rivers development. Of this the 2nd component can be implemented since NWDA has conducted feasibility survey, and estimates prepared to some basins. The excess water of east flowing rivers is proposed to bring to the South and the west flowing flood water to transfer to the east to irrigate drought affected areas. The Supreme Court has directed Government of India in the year 2002 and again in 2012 to implement the interlinking of rivers in a time bound programme by constituting a panel. This paper analyses the water resources of the country and the priority items for interlinking of rivers to fulfill the needs of the southern States particularly Tamil Nadu which is facing severe water scarcity.

by R.K. Sivanappan
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