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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT OF RECENT DAM/ EMBANKMENT BREAK EVENTS IN INDIA

CONSEQUENT UPON ORISSA SUPER CYCLONE, GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE AND END OF INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION(IDNDR), GOVT. OF INDIA RECOGNIZED DISASTER MANAGEMENT AS A DEVELOPMENT ISSUE. IT WAS REALIZED THAT "WHILE HAZARDS, BOTH NATURAL OR OTHERWISE, ARE INEVITABLE, THE DISASTERS THAT FOLLOW NEED NOT BE SO AND THE SOCIETY CAN BE PREPARED TO COPE WITH THEM EFFECTIVELY WHENEVERTHEY OCCUR" AND CALLED FOR A "MULTI- PRONGED STRATEGY FOR TOTAL RISK MANAGEMENT, COMPRISING PREVENTION, PREPAREDNESS, RESPONSE AND RECOVERY, ON THE ONE HAND, AND FOR INITIATING DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS AIM TOWARDS RISK REDUCTION AND MITIGATION , ON THE OTHER HAND ". ONE SUCH POSSIBLE DISASTER SCENARIO PERTAINS TO DAM/EMBANKMENT BREAK SITUATIONS, WHOSE ANALYSIS WOULD HELP US TO RE-ORIENT OURSELVES TO DEAL WITH DAM/EMBANKMENT BREAK SCENARIO MORE EFFECTIVELY IN EVOLVING DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE COUNTRY. ACCORDINGLY, ACTUAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN FOUR DISTINCT DAM BREAK SITUATIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS, VIZ., PARECHU LANDSLIDE DAM (INTERNATIONAL LEVEL), PRATAPPURA DAM(LOCAL MUNICIPAL CORPORATION LEVEL), JASWANT SAGAR DAM( STATE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT LEVEL), IN RECENT PAST(2005 ONWARDS) AND MORE RECENTLY NARMADA MAIN CANAL (PROJECT LEVEL) WERE ANALYZED. THE LESSONS LEARNED HELPED US TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE AREAS OF STRENGTHENING SO THAT THE PEOPLE IN THE DOWNSTREAM AREAS CAN BE ASSURED OF EFFECTIVE AND TIMELY ACTIONS IN EMERGENCY CASES FOR PROTECTION OF THEIR LIVES AND PROPERTIES.

by M.K. SINHA, S.M. NARULKAR
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  • Apr, 2010
    Volume - 30, No. - 2
    MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF THE WATERSHED USING GIS
    S.K. Sharma, G.S. Rajput, S. Tignath and R.P. Pandey

    The Geomorphological characteristics of a Watershed are more commonly used for developing the regional hydrological models for solving the various hydrological problems of the ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations.Therefore,in the study m...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF THE WATERSHED USING GIS

The Geomorphological characteristics of a Watershed are more commonly used for developing the regional hydrological models for solving the various hydrological problems of the ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations.Therefore,in the study morphometric analysis and prioritization of eight sub-watersheds of Uttala river watershed, which is a tributary of Son river considered for this study.The morphometric parameters considered for analysis are Stream order, Stream length, Stream frequency, Drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, Elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio. After analysis of morphometric parameters compound parameter values are calculated and prioritization rating of eight sub-watershed is carried out. The sub-watershed two has lowest compound parameter value 2.63 is likely to be subjected to a maximum soil erosion; hence it requires immediate attention for provisions of soil conservation measures.

by S.K. Sharma, G.S. Rajput, S. Tignath and R.P. Pandey
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

PREDICTION OUT FLOW FROM A MOUNTAINOUS WATERSHED USING LINEAR RESERVOIR ROUTING CONCEPT

The Rainfall runoff transformation on Watershed scale is a complex process showing non-linear relationships between various hydrologic components.A simplified approach with reasonably accurate simulations has assumed it to be a time invariant and black-box system exposed to a single-humped input and producing a single lumped output. Consequently, the linear models have received considerable attention for modeling the rainfall -runoff process due to reasonably accurate simulations. This study was undertaken to predict the direct runoff based on the conceptual linear reservoir routing approach having a single parameter(storage coefficient) for the Gagas Sub-watershed of Ramganga river catchment in Uttarakhand, India. The proposed model simulates with reasonably good accuracy the overflow from the hilly watershed to facilitate planning and design of various soils and water conservation and irrigation and drainage structures in mountainous areas with limited hydrological data. A simple routing equation has been proposed to derive the instantaneous unit hydro graph, which can be used to produce the unit graph and the direct runoff hydro graph by using the convolution integral

by Anil Kumar, Henendra Singh and Deepank Verma
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR CRITICAL AREAS OF CHHOKRANALA WATERSHED USING SWAT MODEL AND GIS

A distributed parameter model, the soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested on monthly and seasonal basis and used for developing management scenarios for the critical sub Watersheds of a small agricultural watershed of Chhattisgarh ( Chhokranala ). The Watershed and sub Watershed boundaries, drainage networks, soap and soil textures maps were generated using GIS. Supervised classification method was adopted for land use/cover classification from satellite imagery using ERDAS Imagine.Manning's 'n' for overland and channel flow and Fraction of Field Capacity (FFC) were calibrated for monsoon season of the years 2002 to 2003. The model was validated for the years 2004 to 2005. Results revealed that the model was predicting the monthly and seasonal surface runoff and sediment yield satisfactorily. Simulation results of nutrients including organic N and P in sediment and NO3-N and soluble P in runoff were also compared with observed data for several events and found satisfactory. The critical sub-watersheds were identified on the basis of average annual sediment yield and nutrient losses during the study period. Out of seven sub-Watersheds. SWS-6 and SWS-& were found to be critical. Several combinations of treatment options were considered which included four crops, five tillage and three levels of fertilizers. The existing management practice was considered as the base for evaluating other management practices for rice. The results showed other crops couldn't replace rice since these crops resulted in higher sediment yield as compared to rice. Considering both sediment and nutrient losses together the zero tillage, conservation tillage and field cultivator with half dose of fertilizers were found to be better than the other treatments considered for evaluating their impact on sediment yield and nutrient losses for sub-watershed(SWS-5).

by Narendra Agrawal, M.K. Verma and M.P. Tripathi
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  • Apr, 2010
    Volume - 30, No. - 2
    ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL SPATIAL AND VOLUMETRIC PRECIPITATION IN THE KLAMATH BASIN
    K.L. ROSCOE, W.W. WALLENDER, H.CARLSON AND N.S. RAGHUWANSHI

    A model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution and volume of annual precipitation using Precipitation measurements at a single gage. The study area comprises the watershed of the Klamath River above Keno, Oregon, The model was developed b...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL SPATIAL AND VOLUMETRIC PRECIPITATION IN THE KLAMATH BASIN

A model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution and volume of annual precipitation using Precipitation measurements at a single gage. The study area comprises the watershed of the Klamath River above Keno, Oregon, The model was developed by determining large-scale orographic regions in the study area using the Parametric-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Within each orographic region, PRISM-modeled time-averaged precipitation values were used to calculate a linear average precipitation-elevation model. These average models were used to develop an annual precipitation model for all locations and for all years for which there were measurements at the Klamath precipitation gage. Modeled precipitation was compared to measured precipitation at each gage in the study area, showing that modeled precipitation in three of the four orographic regions was accurate. Average historic flow, prior to the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath project, was estimated by correlating volumetric precipitation with flow in the Klamath River at Keno from 1930-1997(post project) and compared with the measured flow from 1905-1912(pre-project). Statistical tests showed that the pre and post project flows were significantly different, while the pre and post project precipitation valves were not shown to be significantly different. The average pre-project volumetric precipitation and flow at Keno were 7.63 * 109 m*3 and 1.73 * 10*3 m*3 respectively. This flow value is six percent lower than the value 1.83 * 10*9 m*3. obtained by Hecha and Kammam(1996). The application of Klamath Basin(KB) precipitation model in filling the gaps in data sets at all gages with the study area showed that the model estimates were good for all region 4. The methodology used here can be used to extend the precipitation records at the other stations based on the extensive data of one station.

by K.L. ROSCOE, W.W. WALLENDER, H.CARLSON AND N.S. RAGHUWANSHI
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