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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN A WATER DEFICIT STATE
    M. L. Jat*, P. M. Jain, S. K. Sharma and L. K. Jain

    Resource Conservation Technologies (RCT?s) are getting momentum for off-farm testing and advance research and development work. The participatory evaluation of agricultural work priorities in Rajasthan indicate that conservation and its efficient uti...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN A WATER DEFICIT STATE

Resource Conservation Technologies (RCT?s) are getting momentum for off-farm testing and advance research and development work. The participatory evaluation of agricultural work priorities in Rajasthan indicate that conservation and its efficient utilization is the major priority of work to be done in the sector of agricultural research and development. The water available on the earth constitutes a very small proportion of the total amount of water available. Increasing population, growth of industries and socio-economic development are putting more and more pressure on available water resources. Further, the distribution of water is highly uneven over space and time. Rajasthan state is perhaps the driest state in the country. It has got average annual rainfall of about 575.1 mm. The economically utilizable surface water availability in the state is 16.05 billion cubic metre at 50 percent dependability in addition to external water resources available from other states which is 17.88 billion cubic metre. Mean annual natural replenishable ground water is 7.413 billion cubic metres in the state. Out of this, 10.09 billion cubic metre of surface water has been harnessed by existing projects and 1.85 billion cubic metre of surface water is expected to be harnessed by ongoing schemes. The state has 136 lac hectares of irrigable area which shall require about 100 billion cubic metre of water for irrigation which is not available obviously. Considering the availability, state has proposed to irrigate only 51.28 lac hectares of land. If only harnessed water is considered, per capita availability of water is only 600 cubic metre which is very low compared to minimum per capita requirement of 1000 cubic metre. In view of the water scarcity being faced by the state, comprehensive and integrated planning of development of surface and ground water is needed. High priority needs to be accorded to efficient water supply system, use of water saving devices and improved irrigation practices. Special attention is required to be given to traditional rain water harvesting and conservation techniques and re-use of waste water and also strategies to bridge the gap between available and what can be used is discussed.

by M. L. Jat*, P. M. Jain, S. K. Sharma and L. K. Jain
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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    ESTIMATION OF REVISED CAPACITY IN SHETRUNJI RESERVOIR USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
    T. Thomas* , R. K. Jaiswal, R.V. Galkate and S. Singh

    Efficient reservoir management calls for periodic assessment of its capacity. Capacity surveys of reservoirs are important to assess sedimentation for optimum reservoir operation schedule based on realistic assessment of available storage. The silt w...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

ESTIMATION OF REVISED CAPACITY IN SHETRUNJI RESERVOIR USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

Efficient reservoir management calls for periodic assessment of its capacity. Capacity surveys of reservoirs are important to assess sedimentation for optimum reservoir operation schedule based on realistic assessment of available storage. The silt which gets deposited at different levels of reservoir reduces its storage capacity and useful life. The reduction in the storage capacity beyond a limit prevents the reservoir from fulfillment of the purpose for which it is designed. Periodical capacity surveys of reservoir help in assessing the rate of sedimentation and reduction in storage capacity. The conventional methods of sediment assessment are laborious, costly, time consuming and require experienced manpower and sophisticated instruments. Under such circumstances, remote sensing approach for estimation of revised capacity can be used for routine assessment of sedimentation of reservoirs. In the present study, assessment of revised capacity of Shetrunji reservoir in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat which is a multipurpose medium project has been carried out using digital image analysis of remote sensing data. For the study, seven LISS III scenes of IRS 1D/P6 have been selected to cover the whole range of live storage. The normalized difference water index (NDWI), image ratioing and slicing have been used to distinguish water pixels from rest of the pixels. The revised water spreads have been used to estimate revised capacity at different levels. From the study it has been observed that 120.66 M. cum of gross storage and 97.17 M. cum of live storage have been lost in last 42 years (1965 to 2007). The catchment area up to the dam site of the Shetrunji reservoir being 4317 km2 , the silting rate in common unit is computed to be 6.66 ha-m/100 km2 /year. The present rate of siltation from 2000 to 2007 is 4.29 M. cum/year which is 65% more than the rate of siltation of 2.59 M. cum/year during the period from impoundment to 2000.

by T. Thomas* , R. K. Jaiswal, R.V. Galkate and S. Singh
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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    EXCESS?DEFICIT ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL FOR UMAIAM (BARAPANI), MEGHALAYA
    P. P. Dabral, Pankaj Pandey , S. Debnath , S. Tado and R.P. Singh

    In the present study excess-deficit analysis of rainfall was carried out for Umaiam (Barapani), Meghalya. Three commonly used probability distribution function (normal, lognormal and gamma) were tested on weekly rainfall and evaporation data by compa...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

EXCESS?DEFICIT ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL FOR UMAIAM (BARAPANI), MEGHALAYA

In the present study excess-deficit analysis of rainfall was carried out for Umaiam (Barapani), Meghalya. Three commonly used probability distribution function (normal, lognormal and gamma) were tested on weekly rainfall and evaporation data by comparing the chi square values. For weekly rainfall and evaporation data, all three distributions were found to be best fitted for different weeks. At 60 and 90% probability levels expected rainfall is scare in week nos. 1 to 12 and 43 to 52. For 10% to 50% probability level expected rainfall is not scare. Expected value of evaporation varied from 3.7 mm to 57.1 mm at 10% probability levels and from 1.8 mm to 27. 9 mm at 90% probability levels for all the weeks. From water management planning point of view 30% and 40 % risk levels can be adopted. At 30% risk level, there was deficit of rainfall from week nos. 1 to 21, 24, 26 28, 30 to 33 and 46 to 52. Total computed deficit was 126.2 mm. Excess of rainfall was observed during week nos. 22, 24, 27, 29, 33 to 39. Therefore, drainage is required during that period. Total computed excess of rainfall was 126.2mm. At 40% risk levels there was deficit of rainfall in week nos. 1 to 17, 19-22, 23, 26, 28, 40-52. Total computed deficit was 434.4 mm. Excess of rainfall was in week nos. 18, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29 to 39. Therefore, drainage is required during that period. Total computed excess rainfall was 169.1mm. In order to minimize the risk of crop failure due to lack of rain in the region, it is advisable that irrigation schedule is planned at 30 % risk level. Irrigation planning based on 30 % risk level may increase the lost of irrigation but will have less risk of crop failure.

by P. P. Dabral, Pankaj Pandey , S. Debnath , S. Tado and R.P. Singh
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

IMPACT OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ON GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING MODELLING TECHNIQUE

Wagarwadi watershed of Parbhani district falls under semi-arid tropics of basaltic terrain. During the research study, the water balance components were analysed to find out the ground water recharge, which is the main input to the aquifer MODFLOW. Well characteristics like transmissivity and specific yield were determined by carrying out the pumping test. The computed water levels and computed well hydrographs were derived by simulating the water harvesting structures as lake interaction model and thus the aquifer MODFLOW has been developed. The average annual rainfall estimated, surface runoff and ground water recharge from the watershed are 987.92 mm, 299.35 mm and 130.62 mm, respectively under normal agro-climatic condition. The percentage of mean annual ground water recharge and surface runoff to rainfall worked out to be 13.22 and 30.3 per cent, respectively. In the observation wells, which are in the close vicinity of soil and water conservation measures, the observed water levels were closely matching with the computed water levels. While in the wells located at the downstream side of the harvesting structures, the observed water levels were found to be higher by 1 to 3 m as compared to computed water levels due to additional seepage for restricted area.

by S. L. Suryawanshi and M. S. Pendke
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1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REFERENCE CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FOR SOUTH WEST PLAINS OF UTTARAKHAND

The analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) for the south western plains of Uttarakhand adopting different methods was carried out in the present study using the weather data viz. cloud cover (okta) as X1 , minimum temperature (o C) as X2 , maximum temperature (o C) as X3 , wind velocity (km/day) as X4 , wind direction (o ) as X5 , maximum RH (%) as X6 and minimum RH (%) as X7 of Roorkee. Result shows that the USWB pan evaporation can be calculated using the regression equation; Ep avg. (mm/day) = 1.55 + 0.05 X1 + 0.13 X2 + 0.09 X3 + 0.37 X4 - 0.22X5 - 0.034 X6 - 0.032 X7 . In order to improve the usefulness of the Penman-Monteith method in crop water requirements for the south western Uttarakhand and make the results comparable to Modified Penman and Radiation methods, an adjustment factor or fresh and exclusive Kc values needs to be developed.

by S.K. Tripathi and Bissar Chintamanie
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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL IN JALPAIGURI DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL
    A.P. Unde , B. C. Mal and V.M.Chowdary

    Groundwater potential of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal was assessed using water balance approach. Groundwater balance equation proposed by Chandra and Saxena (1975) was adopted for the present study. In this approach, different components such a...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL IN JALPAIGURI DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

Groundwater potential of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal was assessed using water balance approach. Groundwater balance equation proposed by Chandra and Saxena (1975) was adopted for the present study. In this approach, different components such as recharge from rainfall, subsurface inflow-outflow, groundwater draft, recharge from canals and streams, seepage to the streams, recharge from irrigation water, evapotranspiration losses and groundwater storage change were considered. Analyzing the data, total usable groundwater in nine blocks of Jalpaiguri District was found to be 921.3 Mm3. Different groundwater structures like shallow tubewells, dug wells and deep tubewells are being used to withdraw only 116.2 Mm3 of groundwater at present. Therefore, there is ample scope of further utilization of groundwater for irrigating more area.

by A.P. Unde , B. C. Mal and V.M.Chowdary
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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    IMPACT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER TRANSFORMATIONS ON ALEMAYA LAKE, ETHIOPIA
    Shimelis Gebriye Setegn , Fikadu Yohannes , Shoeb Quraishi , V.M.Chowdary and B.C.Mal

    Alemaya lake located in Eastern highlands of Ethiopia has been severely degraded and transformed during the last few decades, due to agricultural activities. In this study, aerial photographs acquired during the years 1965,1996 and 2002 were interpre...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

IMPACT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER TRANSFORMATIONS ON ALEMAYA LAKE, ETHIOPIA

Alemaya lake located in Eastern highlands of Ethiopia has been severely degraded and transformed during the last few decades, due to agricultural activities. In this study, aerial photographs acquired during the years 1965,1996 and 2002 were interpreted to quantify and spatially characterize the spatial and thematic information concerning the major land use/cover types of the Alemaya watershed. From the spatio temporal analysis of the data, permanent decrease of the lake surface area has been observed during the period 1965 ?2002. The surface area of the lake that was around 393.6 ha in the year 1965 has been reduced to 226 ha within a span of 37 years. Due to lack of directives on the use of land and water resources in the area, it is observed that the lands adjacent to the lake are constantly cultivated which aggravated the process of soil erosion and increased the sedimentation of the lake. A large quantity of water in excess of annual recovery is being withdrawn for irrigating the adjacent fields by using a number of centrifugal pumps without taking into consideration the crop water demand. This is endangering the survival of the lake itself.

by Shimelis Gebriye Setegn , Fikadu Yohannes , Shoeb Quraishi , V.M.Chowdary and B.C.Mal
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  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    PRIVATIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY AN INAPPROPRIATE SOLUTION IN INDIAN CONTEXT
    S.K. Lunkad, Gulab Singh Narwal and Anita Sharma

    Drinking water crisis in major Indian cities, including the Pink City of Jaipur, is rising day by day and is expected to phenomenally increase by 2020. Cities located on the peninsular hard rock terrain are hit hard Some cities in the alluvial plains...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

PRIVATIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY AN INAPPROPRIATE SOLUTION IN INDIAN CONTEXT

Drinking water crisis in major Indian cities, including the Pink City of Jaipur, is rising day by day and is expected to phenomenally increase by 2020. Cities located on the peninsular hard rock terrain are hit hard Some cities in the alluvial plains too are no exception. Privatization of water sector does not seem to bring any improvement in the supply of minimum quantity of safe domestic water to urban and rural poor. Proliferation of bottled-water industry based mainly on groundwater will aggravate the situation further. Enhancing the supply of indigenously purified water by the Govt. public health departments is the only remedial measure that can be suggested in the existing socio-economic setup in India.

by S.K. Lunkad, Gulab Singh Narwal and Anita Sharma
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