Sign In

Forget password

Sign Up
SIGN IN WITH
 

Go To Login

RETRIEVE PASSWORD  

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GRAM EVAPOTRANSPIRATION UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF UDAIPUR

Stochastic modelling of gram evapotranspiration was carried out using 26 years (1978? 2003) data of Udaipur. Out of twenty six year data 24 year data were used for model development and remaining two year data were used for its validation. The trend tests indicated that the evapotranspiration series is trend free. The periodic component of evapotranspiration can be represented by second harmonic expression. The stochastic components of the evapotranspiration follow third order Auto Regressive (AR) model. Validation of generated evapotranspiration series was done by comparing generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series. The correlation coefficient between generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series was found to be 0.99. The correlation was tested by t-test and found to be highly significant at 1 per cent level. The standard error (0.06 mm) is quite low. The regression equation is very near to 1:1 line. Therefore, developed model can be used for future prediction of gram evapotranspiration series

by Kuldeep A. Jadhav and S. R. Bhakar
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED MODELING OF STREAM FLOWS FOR SINDH BASIN IN MADHYA PRADESH

An artificial neural network with a feed forward back propagation algorithm has been employed for development of the model in the Sindh basin up to Madhikheda dam site. The daily rainfall and stream flow data for a period of 9 years from 1992 to 2001 has been used for training and testing the model. It has been found that a feed forward neural network with a single hidden layer and five neurons in the hidden layer is sufficient to model the stream flows at the dam site. The efficiency of the model varies between 70.36 % and 94.57 % with an overall efficiency of 85.14 % during calibration and between 63.02 % and 92.76 % with an overall efficiency of 84.42 % during validation. The percentage difference between the observed and computed peak flow during the calibration and validation period varies between 1.335 % and 0.319 % respectively. The correlation coefficient between the observed and computed flow series varies between 0.79 and 0.97. The ability of the three layer artificial neural network to relate the rainfall to the runoff response of the Sindh river basin up to Madhikheda dam site is demonstrated

by T. Thomas, R.K. Jaiswal, R.avi Galkate and Surjeet Singh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    A MICRO LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ? A CASE STUDY
    Samanpreet Kaur, Rajan Aggarwal, Sudhir Thamanand Manish Kumar

    Water is most vital input in agriculture and has made a significant contribution in providing stability to food grain production. This resource can be optimally used and sustained only when quantity and quality of water is assessed. Efficient managem...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

A MICRO LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ? A CASE STUDY

Water is most vital input in agriculture and has made a significant contribution in providing stability to food grain production. This resource can be optimally used and sustained only when quantity and quality of water is assessed. Efficient management of water resources relies on a comprehensive database. Thus, the present study was aimed to assess the total available water resources at the block level during Kharif and Rabi season in Ludhiana district and it was calculated that the total available water resource in the district was 619734.0 ha-m out of which 446813.7 ha-m (72%) in Kharif season and 170866.5 ha m (28%) in Rabi season. The maximum water availability is in Jagraon (2.09 m) followed by Ludhiana (1.88 m) and Dehlon (1.76 m) and minimum water availability is in Mangat (1.37 m) followed by Pakhowal (1.46 m) and Sudhar (1.48 m). In Ludhiana district rainfall and groundwater contributes 40% and 50% respectively to the total water resources while the remaining 10% is contributed by canal water.

by Samanpreet Kaur, Rajan Aggarwal, Sudhir Thamanand Manish Kumar
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    COMPARISON OF T-YEAR RAINFALL USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS APPROACH
    N. Vivekanandan

    Estimation of rainfall for a desired return period is one of the pre-requisite for planning and operation of various hydraulic structures. Frequency analysis approach is the effective and expedient tool for estimation of rainfall. This paper gives de...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

COMPARISON OF T-YEAR RAINFALL USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS APPROACH

Estimation of rainfall for a desired return period is one of the pre-requisite for planning and operation of various hydraulic structures. Frequency analysis approach is the effective and expedient tool for estimation of rainfall. This paper gives details of a study involving the use of frequency analysis approach adopting six statistical distributions for estimation of rainfall for different return periods for Kakrapar, Roha and Sudhagad sites. Goodness-of-Fit tests like Chisquare and Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used for checking the adequacy of fitting of the distributions to the recorded annual daily maximum rainfall data. Diagnostic test involving D-index is used for selection of appropriate distribution for rainfall estimation. The paper presents the 2-parameter Gamma distribution is found to be suitable among six distributions for estimation of rainfall for the data under study.

by N. Vivekanandan
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING ANN: KANKAIMAI WATERSHED, NEPAL
    Mekhnath Sharma , Zulfequar Ahmad and Nayan Sharma

    The present paper deals with the prediction of daily runoff and sediment yield from Kankaimai watershed at Mainachuli, Nepal using ANN and regression models. Vegetational and geomorphologic analysis of the watershed reveals that Kankaimai watershed i...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING ANN: KANKAIMAI WATERSHED, NEPAL

The present paper deals with the prediction of daily runoff and sediment yield from Kankaimai watershed at Mainachuli, Nepal using ANN and regression models. Vegetational and geomorphologic analysis of the watershed reveals that Kankaimai watershed is fairly good watershed with moderately peak flow of shorter duration. The basin is predominantly covered by sparse and medium vegetation and have moderately high rate of soil erosion. The land area covered by dense vegetation is comparatively less, which results in the formation of more numbers of streams. ANN and regression models were developed to predict daily runoff and sediment yield from the Kankaimai watershed using daily runoff and sediment yield data for the years 2001- 2003 for the monsoon season. ANN runoff model consisting of concurrent rainfall of three rain gauges and past one and two days runoff performs better than the other models in the terms of statistical and graphical indicators. Like wise ANN sediment yield model of the input parameter concurrent runoff is better than the other models. Regression runoff and sediment yield models were also developed using the same input vectors used in ANN models.

by Mekhnath Sharma , Zulfequar Ahmad and Nayan Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

TEMPORAL CHANGES IN RAINFALL OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN WEST MIDNAPORE DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

Monsoon rains are the backbone of Indian economy as rural livelihood solely dependents on good monsoon rains. Well distributed monsoon rains over the season support the production and prosperity of rural society. In recent decades the changes in rainfall occurrence and distribution has affected society in terms of frequent floods, droughts and/or insufficient rains to cultivate the crops even in monsoon season. Therefore we studied the changes in rainfall pattern as a possible result of changed climate over the West Midnapore district of West Bengal. The characteristics of rainfall frequency and intensity over the region, covered under 4 grids of 1 o x 1 o , have been statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variance and anomaly. The monthly, seasonal and annual grided data for 54 years (1951 to 2004) has been used to establish the rainfall frequency and intensity pattern as a result of proclaimed changing climate. The results indicate that annual frequency as well as the intensity of rainfall has increased in last 50 years. However, month wise analysis showed that both the rainfall intensity and frequency has an increasing trend for the months of June, July and August but September month showed spatial changes and decreasing trend. There is also an increase in high rainfall events, which might be a result of climate change, and resulting frequent flood conditions with less availability of water for crops. Results are enumerating to explore the adoptability of climate change in terms of changed rainfall pattern

by Ashok Mishra and Chandranath Chatterjee
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM COTTONSEED & PONGAMIA OIL
    M.P. Sharma

    Indiscriminate use of fossil fuels coupled with serious gaseous emissions has led to the search for alternative to diesel fuel in recent years. Among oil resources, cotton seed & Pongamia oil were choosen to investigate the kinetics of transesterific...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM COTTONSEED & PONGAMIA OIL

Indiscriminate use of fossil fuels coupled with serious gaseous emissions has led to the search for alternative to diesel fuel in recent years. Among oil resources, cotton seed & Pongamia oil were choosen to investigate the kinetics of transesterification for conversion to biodiesel (methyl/ethyl ester). The paper reviews the transesterification, effect of various parameters, oils and biodiesel properties with emphasis on the kinetics of reactions as well as techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction of conversion from Triglycerides (TG) to Diglycerides (DG) is fastest, slower from Diglycerides to Monoglycerides (MG) & slowest from MG to methyl ester and glycerine. It is evidenced by the kinetic data that at 70?C & 6:1 molar ratio, the value of K1 to K3 increases while K4 -K6 decreases in the case of cotton seed oil while value of K1 -K6 decreases in the case of Pongamia oil giving only 56% and 69% yield of ME respectively. Further increase in molar ratio to 9:1 results in 70% yield of ME in both the cases. Under optimum conditions of temp. & molar ratio of methanol to oil (70?C at 6:1), the cotton seed & Pongamia oil yielded 0.688 kg biodiesel / kg of both the oils, but poor yield of biodiesel (0.070 kg) from cotton seed compared to Pongamia oil (0.30 kg/kg of oil). A techno economic analysis of various oils indicated that cost of production of biodiesel is minimum from Pongamia (Rs. 10.50) and maximum from sesame oil (Rs. 54/-) with Rs. 14.22/- from cottonseed oil compared to diesel (Rs.38/- per liter).

by M.P. Sharma
Read More
 
Read More
Membership Required

Only paid member's can view generals, Please contact administrator for membership.