Sign In

Forget password

Sign Up
SIGN IN WITH
 

Go To Login

RETRIEVE PASSWORD  
  • Apr, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 2
    MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF DHADHAR RIVER BASIN, GUJARAT
    Prerna Sutariya , Sanskriti Mujumdar and Dipak Sena

    The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of the geometry of the drainage basins and its network which helps in characterizing the drainage network, comparing the characteristic of several drainage...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF DHADHAR RIVER BASIN, GUJARAT

The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of the geometry of the drainage basins and its network which helps in characterizing the drainage network, comparing the characteristic of several drainage networks and examining the effect of variables such as lithology, rock structure, rainfall etc. Morphometric analysis and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Dhadhar basin, Gujarat, India. The quantitative analysis of the morphometric characteristics of the basin include Stream density, Stream order, Drainage density, Average stream slope, Compactness coefficient, Circulatory ratio, Elongation ratio, Form factor. The forgoing analysis clearly indicates some relations among the various attributes of the morphometric aspects of the basin and helps to understand their role in sculpturing the surface of the region. This study would help the local people to utilize the resources for sustainable development of the basin area.

by Prerna Sutariya , Sanskriti Mujumdar and Dipak Sena
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR IRRIGATION SUITABILITY IN SALINITY AFFECTED COASTAL RIVER BASIN OF GUJARAT

The groundwater system along the coast of Saurashtra is affected by high salinity. In the Minsar river basin, the groundwater salinity varies from very high near the sea coast to medium and low salinity values in the upland areas. Chemical analyses of water samples in the region show that calcium and magnesium are the dominant cations present in groundwater next to sodium. Similarly, bicarbonate anion is also present in considerable amounts next to chloride. To assess the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes, a total of 71 groundwater samples, collected from zones at varying distances from the sea coast, were analyzed for computing water quality indicators viz., salinity, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH), permeability index (PI) and boron concentrations. US Salinity Laboratory based classification was also carried out. Results reveal that quality of groundwater for irrigation is more suitable at distances generally beyond 12 km from the sea coast. Proper soil management and selection of crops with good salt tolerance are recommended in the region.

by Parul Gupta , Anupma Sharma and Namita Joshi
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

CO-ACTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM (CANFIS) AND MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION (MLR) BASED SUSPENDED SEDIMENT MDELLING

Accurate estimation of the suspended sediment load in streams is important for water resources engineering. Suspended sediment is a determining factor of the service life of hydraulic structures, like dams and reservoirs. This study investigates the potential of Co-active Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (CANFIS) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) for estimating the daily suspended sediment concentration (SSC) at Tekra site on Pranhita River, which is a major tributary of Godavari River basin in Andhra Pradesh, India. The daily hydro-meteorological data of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) from June 23, 2000 to November 11, 2003 were used for the development of CANFIS and MLR models. The architecture of CANFIS networks was constructed using the NeuroSolutions 5.0 software with Gaussian and generalized Bell membership functions (MFs), Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model, hyperbolic tangent activation function and Delta-Bar-Delta learning algorithms. The performance of CANFIS models was compared with those of MLR models using statistical indices such as root mean squared error (RMSE), coefficient of efficiency (CE) and correlation coefficient (r). The overall performance evaluation revealed that the CANFIS with TSK fuzzy model and the Gaussian membership function was superior to the MLR method in estimating daily SSC. The analysis revealed that the daily SSC depends on current and previous one day?s streamflow as well as SSC of previous one day at the Tekra station on Pranhita River

by Anurag Malik and Anil Kumar
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 2
    RUNOFF COEFFICIENT FOR DIFFERENT HILLY MICRO WATERSHEDS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USES
    Pulkabha Chowdhury , P. P. Dabral and R. K. Singh

    The study was carried out to estimate maximum runoff coefficients under different land uses of a hilly watershed. Nine different land uses (Live stock based farming system -W1 , timber plantation -W2 , agro-forestry -W3 , agriculture in bench terrace...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

RUNOFF COEFFICIENT FOR DIFFERENT HILLY MICRO WATERSHEDS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USES

The study was carried out to estimate maximum runoff coefficients under different land uses of a hilly watershed. Nine different land uses (Live stock based farming system -W1 , timber plantation -W2 , agro-forestry -W3 , agriculture in bench terrace -W4 , agri-horti-silvipastoral system -W5 , horticulture -W6 , natural vegetation -W7 , fellow under shifting cultivation-W8 and pine plantation -WAEW) were considered under farming system research project site at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya. The rational method for computing runoff coefficient under different land uses of nine hilly micro watersheds has been successfully used. Amongst the nine different micro watersheds, the highest mean monthly maximum runoff coefficient (0.432) was found in micro watershed W8 (average slope 54.87%) followed by micro watersheds W2 (average slope 38%) and W3 (average slope 33%) with mean monthly values of maximum runoff coefficient of 0.291 and 0.271 respectively. The lowest mean monthly maximum runoff coefficient (0.0705) was found in micro watershed W7 (average slope 53.18%). In the micro watersheds W1 (average slope 32%), W4 (average land slope 32.18%), W5 (average slope 32.42%) and W6 (slope 41.77%) mean monthly maximum runoff coefficient values were obtained 0.0906, 0.1348, 0.1167 and 0.1754 respectively. For the sediment producing events, the maximum runoff coefficients for the micro watersheds W1 ,W2 ,W3 , W4 , W5 and W6 were found in the range of 0.085-0.098, 0.356-0.518, 0.293-0.359, 0.105-0.191, 0.105-0.189 and 0.181-0.458 respectively. The mean values of maximum runoff coefficient for the micro watersheds W1 , W2 , W3 , W4 , W5 and W6 were found 0.091, 0.421, 0.319, 0.138, 0.147 and 0.336 respectively.

by Pulkabha Chowdhury , P. P. Dabral and R. K. Singh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 2
    APPLICATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROGRAMMING IN FLOOD FREQUENCY ANALYSIS
    Mohd. Muzzammil , Javed Alam and Mohd Danish

    Flood frequency and its magnitude are essential for the proper design of hydraulics structures such as bridges, spillways, culverts, waterways, roads, railways, flood control structures and urban drainage systems. Since, flood is a very complex natur...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

APPLICATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROGRAMMING IN FLOOD FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

Flood frequency and its magnitude are essential for the proper design of hydraulics structures such as bridges, spillways, culverts, waterways, roads, railways, flood control structures and urban drainage systems. Since, flood is a very complex natural event depending upon characteristics of catchment, rainfall conditions and various other factors, thus its analytical modelling is very difficult to pursue. Recently, artificial intelligence techniques such as gene expression programming (GEP), artificial neural network (ANN) etc. have been found to be efficient in modelling complex problems in hydraulic engineering. The performance of GEP model has been reported to be better than that of the ANN. Moreover, GEP provides mathematical equation which makes it more superior over other soft computing techniques that do not give any analytical mathematical equation. Therefore, in present study, GEP is implemented in flood frequency analysis for typical Indian river gauging station. The results obtained in the present study are highly promising and suggest that GEP modelling is a versatile technique and represents an improved alternative to the more conventional approach for the flood frequency analysis.

by Mohd. Muzzammil , Javed Alam and Mohd Danish
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY OF METROPOLITAN CITY VADODARA, GUJARAT USING WATER QUALITY INDEX

Metropolitan city of Vadodara is 16th largest town in India (population wise) and the third in the state of Gujarat. The city witnessed a sudden spurt in industrial activity with the establishment of Gujarat Refinery, Indian Oil Corporation. It is the industrial nucleas of the Gujarat State. Vadodara and its surrounding areas are today humming with industrial activity. The mixture of different kind of untreated/partially treated/treated industrial waste is being discharged through a number of drains passing in and the city. Further, the surface runoff caused by rainfall and spills from loading of oil tankers also contribute to the ground water contamination. In the present investigation, assessment of the ground water quality of different drinking water sources in and around metropolitan city of Vadodara has been carried out by using water quality index. The water quality data of ground water of pre- and post-monsoon seasons of the year 2008 and 2009 has been used for the calculation of water quality Index. Fifteen parameters (TDS, HCO3 , Cl, SO4 , NO3 , F, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ni Cr and Cd) were used to calculate the water quality index and each of the 15 parameters (TDS, HCO3 , Cl, SO4 , NO3 , F, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ni Cr and Cd) has been assigned a weight (wi ) according to its relative importance in the overall quality of water for drinking purposes. It was observed that quality was not observed to improve in about 50% of the locations after monsoon season during the year 2008 but during the year 2009, the quality of ground water was observed to improve in post-monsoon season in most of the samples. The groundwater of Limda, Harni, Nandesari and Makarpura was found to be ?unsuitable for drinking purposes?.

by M. K. Sharma
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 2
    COMPUTATION OF DAM BREAK FLOOD DISASTER RISK INDEX
    Vijaya Kumar P.G. , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey

    This paper presents a new Dam Break Flood Disaster Risk Index (DBFDRI) for quantitative assessment of the level of risk involved due to disaster likely to be caused by a dam break flood and it can be quite useful for taking various priority based mit...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

COMPUTATION OF DAM BREAK FLOOD DISASTER RISK INDEX

This paper presents a new Dam Break Flood Disaster Risk Index (DBFDRI) for quantitative assessment of the level of risk involved due to disaster likely to be caused by a dam break flood and it can be quite useful for taking various priority based mitigating measures. The index is determined by employing the results of HEC-RAS 4.1.0 for various locations downstream of the dam considering the parameters affecting the dam break flood disaster assessed from field survey.

by Vijaya Kumar P.G. , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 2
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 2)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 1
    OPTIMAL OPERATING POLICIES FOR RAVISHANKAR SAGAR RESERVOIR ? A CASE STUDY
    Ananda Babu K , R.K. Shrivastava and Manisha Dikshit

    Creation of storages through development of Reservoirs is the major avenue for meeting the water demands. For various beneficial uses in country like India where 90-95% water is available in monsoon months only it is required to create storage facili...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

OPTIMAL OPERATING POLICIES FOR RAVISHANKAR SAGAR RESERVOIR ? A CASE STUDY

Creation of storages through development of Reservoirs is the major avenue for meeting the water demands. For various beneficial uses in country like India where 90-95% water is available in monsoon months only it is required to create storage facilities. The available resource is becoming scarce day by day due to enormous population growth and industrial development. Availability of limited sites for creating storages on Major Rivers and their tributaries is also a constraint in development of many reservoir projects. The optimal utilization of available resource seems to be the key for tackling the complex situation of meeting the ever increasing demand of water. Development of strategies for operating a reservoir in an optimal manner to have the judicious use of available resource is also a complex phenomenon and required the use of System Analysis Techniques. There is no general algorithm for all reservoirs, and then each reservoir is to be tackled independently for developing the optimal operating strategies. Considering the a b o v e aspects the present study is f o c u s e d on developing the strategies for optimal utilization of w a t e r i n an existing reservoir in MRP Complex in Chhattisgarh State

by Ananda Babu K , R.K. Shrivastava and Manisha Dikshit
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT YIELD MODEL FOR NANI CHIKALI WATERSHED

The hydraulic studies were carried out on Nani Chikali watershed which is situated in Narmada district about 23 kilometers from Rajpipla. It is located between 22? 4? 28.47? to 22? 7? 24.47? N Latitude and 74? 33? 11? to 74? 51? 41.59? E Longitude. The weekly runoff and sediment yield models are used for estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the study. The linear model was applied to measure the runoff and sediment yield. The parameters of model were calculated by multiple regression method using SPSS statistics software. The performance of model was evaluated by performing the quantitative tests which indicates that average absolute prediction error ranged from 2.08 % to 4.16 % and 2.16 % to 3.96 % for runoff and sediment yield models respectively. The coefficient of efficiency ranged from 81.88 % to 87.25 % and 81.68 % to 90.80 % for runoff and sediment yield models respectively. The overall results clearly indicate that the runoff and sediment yield models used for Nani Chikali watershed can be use for predicting runoff and sediment yield for similar watershed

by M. M. Vaghasiya , M. Imtiyaz , J. L. G. Kumar and D.M. Denis
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING STRATEGIES FOR COTTON CROP IN SEMI - ARID CLIMATE USING WEAP MODEL

There is constant competing demand for water amongst agricultural, industrial and domestic users as it is fixed and limited resource. With limited availability of irrigation water in arid and semi arid regions it has become necessary to optimize water use efficiency and maximize crop yields under deficit irrigation conditions. Water shortage during the growth period has an impact on ultimate yields. There is need to adopt such irrigation scheduling techniques by which it is possible to have more effective and optimal use of limited supplies of water. Regulated deficit irrigation provides a means of reducing water consumption while minimizing adverse effects on yield. Cotton crop has been taken for case study to simulate the response to deficit irrigation during flowering stage and boll formation stage. A case study was taken to investigate water stress induced during flowering stage and boll formation phase by withholding irrigation by 10days. The simulations for case study indicate that regulated deficit irrigation is resulting in marginal reduction in yield while there is significant increase in irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in comparison to conventional practices. Saving of water can be achieved by determining irrigation requirements in real time by using WEAP model incorporating MABIA method.

by Gopal H. Bhatti and H. M. Patel
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2015
    Volume - 35, No. - 1
    ISSUES IN INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
    Prashant Tiwari and Rajeev Chaube

    Need for Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) has been emphasized at various national and international forums. However, its implementation in developing countries and particularly in India is found to be faced with many challenges. This paper...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

ISSUES IN INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

Need for Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) has been emphasized at various national and international forums. However, its implementation in developing countries and particularly in India is found to be faced with many challenges. This paper makes a critical review of IWRM concept and highlights the challenges keeping in view the Indian water laws and water conflict resolution process. There have been several initiatives in basin approach but for adhoc purposes and not for IWRM. Model river basin organization as proposed by National Commission for Integrated Water Resource Development Plan (NCIWRDP) is examined. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made based on the current status of water resource management. It is hoped that this paper will lead to better awareness of growing water challenges to water resource management in India.

by Prashant Tiwari and Rajeev Chaube
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

GROUNDWATER QUALITY STUDY IN FARRUKHNAGAR BLOCK, GURGAON DISTRICT, HARYANA USING GIS

Groundwater is a major source for fulfilling the requirement in different sectors like drinking water, irrigation and industrial uses. The good quality and quantity of groundwater plays vital role in the development of an area. Geographic Information System (GIS) is of tremendous utility in understanding, representing and interpreting the data in spatial and non-spatial forms. In the present study, Arc GIS 9.3 software has been used to assess the groundwater quality of Farrukhnagar Block of Gurgaon District, Haryana. Seven groundwater samples have been collected from different locations during field visit. Ten water quality parameters- pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (Ak), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), fluoride (F), ammonia (NH3) and free residual chlorine (RC) have been analyzed using field water testing kit prepared by TDWD, Chennai for Post-Monsoon-2013 and Pre-Monsoon-2014 seasons. In GIS environment, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique has been used for interpolation of each parameter. Categorization of parameters has been done as per BIS IS10500:2012 drinking water standards. All the ten parameter layers have been integrated to prepare integrated groundwater quality maps for post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons seperately. The overall groundwater quality falls in three categoriesdesirable, permissible and non-potable in the block in both seasons. The findings of the study can be used for planning, development and management of drinking water in the block

by Anup Kumar , Arun Goel , Anuj Goyal and R.S.Hooda
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 35, Number 1)

MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND FOR THE HINDON RIVER, INDIA

The river Hindon (a tributary of the Yamuna river) is mainly polluted due to untreated and/or partially treated sewage discharge from municipal and/or industrial sources located within its catchment. The discharge of high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sewage is harmful for survival of aquatic life in a water body. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important water quality parameters used for assessing the quality of the water for survival of the aquatic life. The high BOD load becomes responsible for lowering the DO levels in a water body. When DO drops below 4 or 5 mg/L, the forms of life that can survive begins to reduce. In this study, prediction of dissolved oxygen was carried out using Ponce Calculator and BOD using simple first order BOD reaction equation. The study is useful for assessing self purification capacity and to sustain aquatic life in the River Hindon.

by Omkar Singh and M.K. Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE THROUGH CLASSICAL METHOD AND OPTICAL, THERMAL REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

Surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological and atmospheric processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous hydrological and environmental studies. Advance in technology shown that soil moisture can be measured by a variety of ground-based and remote sensing techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This work presents a comprehensive review of the progress of surface soil moisture retrieval approaches. Approaches for surface soil moisture estimation from ground-based point measurements to space-based optical, thermal, measurements are presented in this review study. In ground-based approaches, the physical principles and comparative study on three basic scales; cost, accuracy and response time, have been discussed. Measured parameters, limitations and drawbacks of different techniques have also been summarized. Spacebased approaches review study has been divided in two classes depending on data types; optical, thermal. Limitations existing in current soil moisture estimation methods have been also discussed. This review focused only on advanced optical and thermal remote sensing methods for soil moisture retrieval.

by G. Shukla and P. K. Garg
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF SLOPE, SOIL, AND AMC OF A FALLOW LAND ON RUNOFF CURVE NUMBER

Since the inception of SCS-CN methodology, no systematic efforts appear to have been made to verify CN-validity to watersheds in other countries. Besides, slope was excluded in its original development, but it is included as a factor in the recently developed physically based models. A study was conducted on an agricultural (fallow land) experimental watershed (size: 22mx5m) located near Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India, to evaluate the effect of slope, soil type, and antecedent moisture content (AMC) on the runoff curve number for the selected three grades of 5%, 3% and 1% with Hydrologic Soil Groups (HSG) A, B, and A, respectively. The computed CN II values for the plots of grades 5%, 3% and 1% are 81.46, 85.62 & 82.14 respectively. Plot of grade 3% showed the highest runoff and CN rather than others although coefficient of determination between rainfall and runoff was highest for grade 5% (R2 = 0.933). Soil was found to affect CN more prominently than did slope.

by Ranjit Kumar Jha , S. K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    NASH IUH PARAMETERS ESTIMATION USING METHOD OF MOMENTS- A CASE STUDY
    R.B. Magar and V. Jothiprakash

    Flood forecasting plays an important role in mitigating the natural disaster. Among the available methods for flood forecasting, the unit hydrograph (UH), and instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is widely and successfully used. In case of IUH it is ...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

NASH IUH PARAMETERS ESTIMATION USING METHOD OF MOMENTS- A CASE STUDY

Flood forecasting plays an important role in mitigating the natural disaster. Among the available methods for flood forecasting, the unit hydrograph (UH), and instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH), is widely and successfully used. In case of IUH it is assumed that the hydrograph generation was affected by number of ?n? linear reservoirs having similar/same storage coefficient ?K? value. The IUH proposed by Nash has been widely used in rainfall-runoff (RR) simulation as well as for flood forecasting. However the success of application of Nash IUH model is based on the accuracy of the estimated parameters ?n? and ?K? for a given catchment. This study describes the development and application of Nash IUH for the Koyna watershed in Maharashtra, India. The parameters are estimated using method of moments (MOM). This IUH may be useful for predicting the flash flood in to the reservoir for a given rainfall. The obtained direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) estimated from IUH derived is compared with the observed DRH and found to be in good agreement with each other. The performance of the IUH model has been assessed using coefficient of correlation (R), Root mean square error (RMSE), error in peak inflow prediction (%MF) and time to peak flow.

by R.B. Magar and V. Jothiprakash
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

NEURAL NETWORK TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTION OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT AND DISCHARGE FOR A WEIR

Weirs are frequently used in irrigation, sewer networks and flood protection works for flow measurement, and flow control in the open channels. Sharp-crested weirs are the simplest form of over-flow spillways those are very commonly used to determine the flow rate in hydraulic laboratories, industry and irrigation systems, where accurate discharge measurements are must. This study aims to estimate coefficient of discharge and discharge of the sharp-crested triangular plan form weirs in the straight rectangular channel by using artificial neural network model. The performance of the feed forward back propagation neural networks is compared with linear regression model and non linear regression equation. Root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) are used for the evaluation of the models performance. A comparison of results indicated that the feed forward back propagation neural computing technique could be employed successfully in modeling coefficient of discharge and discharge for triangular form weirs.

by Arun Goel
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF CENTRAL MEGHALAYA
    Lala I. P. Ray , P. K. Bora , A. K. Singh , N. J. Singh , Ram Singh and S. M. Feroze

    Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed (around 60% of arable land) and monsoon plays a major role not only in agriculture but also in allied day to day activities. The knowledge amount of rainfall, number of rainy days and its distribution over the cro...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS, PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF CENTRAL MEGHALAYA

Indian agriculture is mostly rainfed (around 60% of arable land) and monsoon plays a major role not only in agriculture but also in allied day to day activities. The knowledge amount of rainfall, number of rainy days and its distribution over the cropping season are important for timely preparation of seed bed, selection of crop varieties, choice of cropping pattern. Rainfall analysis with advanced statistical methods using computer programming and software bring out many features which can be directly used for crop planning, landwater management, aquaculture and floriculture planning etc. The analysis of 28 years (1983-2010) daily rainfall data of Nongstoin station, of central Meghalaya has been done for determining the characteristics of rainfall and probability of occurrence of normal weekly rainfall.

by Lala I. P. Ray , P. K. Bora , A. K. Singh , N. J. Singh , Ram Singh and S. M. Feroze
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW
    Saroj Acharya , Ashish Pandey and U.C. Chaube

    In this study review of the Geographic Information System (GIS) based system/tools for irrigation management has been carried out. A brief review of customization of ArcGIS as irrigation management tool is also presented. Need and potential of develo...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

In this study review of the Geographic Information System (GIS) based system/tools for irrigation management has been carried out. A brief review of customization of ArcGIS as irrigation management tool is also presented. Need and potential of development of the GIS based irrigation management tools to visualize and analyze irrigation management data is discussed in detail. This technique can be employed to develop thematic maps of irrigation requirements to be used by decision-makers. The relevant review literature indicates that GIS is versatile tool that can be used to provide an appropriate framework for manipulating, analyzing and visualizing spatial data and produce results in the form of map, table and graph to support planning and decision making process in irrigation management. Review of various studies revealed that GIS can be customized effectively to develop a tool capable of simulating irrigation water requirements spatially, useful in decision making process in irrigation management.

by Saroj Acharya , Ashish Pandey and U.C. Chaube
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 2
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 2)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

CHARACTERIZATION OF POINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF RIVER HINDON USING WATER QUALITY INDEX

River Hindon, an important tributary of river Yamuna flowing through the districts of Western Uttar Pradesh, is subjected to varying degree of pollution caused by numerous untreated and/or partially treated waste inputs of municipal and industrial effluents. In the present investigation, assessment of the water quality characteristics of different point sources contributing river Hindon has been carried out by collecting water and wastewater samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons during the year 2012. Maximum value of BOD (261 mg/L) was observed in Star Paper Mill Drain. The higher values of BOD and COD observed in the drains indicate high degree of organic pollution rendering the water unsuitable even for bathing purpose. At almost all sites of the upstream and mid-section of the river Hindon, DO was observed to be 0 mg/L because of high organic load in the river water. BOD and COD concentration in river Hindon varies from 3.3 to 65 mg/L and 28 to 338 mg/L in pre-monsoon season while 0 to 139 mg/L and 24 to 388 mg/L in post-monsoon season respectively. Further water quality of river Hindon has been assessed using water quality index and the quality of river Hindon was observed to be bad at all site which may be attributed to untreated and/or partially treated waste inputs of municipal and industrial effluents joining the river.

by M. K. Sharma , C. K. Jain and Omkar Singh
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT AND HEAD-DISCHARGE RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

A glass sided tilting flow channel based laboratory study was carried out to determine the discharge coefficient and head-discharge relationships for hydraulic structures i.e.Broad Crested Weir, Crump Weir, Sluice gate, Radial Gate and Dam Spillway. The average value of Coefficient of Discharge for Broad Crested Weir, Crump Weir, Sluice Gate, Radial Gate and Dam Spillway was found to be 0.44, 0.85, 0.76, 0.82 and 1.03 respectively. Furthermore, the with h/a was linearly related and there was power relationship between Discharge and Head with ranging from 0.80 to 0.99 for all the structures under study.

by P. P. Dabral , P. K. Pandey , Tushar Kumar and Sourav Chakraborty
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, DELHI USING GROUNDWATER MODELING

National Capital Territory, Delhi in India is under the grip of extreme pressure to meet demand for its water resources due to urbanization, improvements in living standards, expanding population etc. Therefore, quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge is a pre-requisite for operating ground water resources system in an optimal manner and meet the demand. The main objective of this study was to predict groundwater recharge in NCT of Delhi. The methodology was achieved using numerical groundwater model (VISUAL MODFLOW, 4.3). MODFLOW model is derived from a combination of topology, soil type, land use, well location using geographic information systems (GIS). The model was calibrated and validated and then used to predict groundwater recharge. The output of the model was found to be in agreement with the earlier records. Moreover, the simulation results also show reasonable declination of water table elevations in the study area during the period of study.

by Vikrant Vishal , Sudhir Kumar and D.C.Singhal
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

GEOMORPHOLOGIC INSTANTANEOUS UNIT HYDROGRAPHS FOR RIVERS IN ERITREA (EAST AFRICA)

Prediction of flood hydrograph is essential for the assessment of water availability, design of various hydraulic structures and watershed development and management. Different methods have been in practice in surface water hydrology for quite some time back. Derivation of unit hydrograph using rainfall and runoff data as well as synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) approaches and conceptual models for gauged and ungauged catchments are some of the efforts in this direction. Nonetheless, most of these have limitations for one or the other reasons. Thus, more recently, use of geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) coupled with other conceptual models has been proved to be the most successful approach for flood prediction from ungauged catchments. In this respect, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing image processing tools have been found to be helpful for the determination of geomorphologic characteristics on which entire GIUH development relies upon. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of GIUH based Nash model is tested on the upper Mereb-Gash sub-basin in Eritrea. Due to the uncertainties of the recorded rainfall data, direct surface runoffs are not computed with any of the approaches referred above. Rather, the GIUH based Nash model unit hydrograph (UH) is developed. However, comparisons of GIUH and SUH of the downstream catchment show that the computed peak discharges are higher in the case of the former.

by Anghesom Alemngus and B.S. Mathur
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR IRRIGATION USE IN RAJKOT DISTRICT, GUJARAT

The groundwater quality of Rajkot district in Gujarat State was assessed for irrigation water use. Twenty seven groundwater samples were considered for calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard ratio (MH), sodium percent (%Na), permeability index (PI), and Index Base Exchange (IBE) values. USSL based graphical classification of groundwater samples is also carried out. Results reveal that majority of sites have SAR < 10 indicating water class to be of excellent quality and 81.48 % samples have RSC less than the permissible 1.5. It is observed that 51.85 % samples have MH ratio values greater than 50. The presence of more magnesium in water than calcium increases the degree of magnesium saturation and deteriorates the soil structure and decrease soil productivity. It is found that 59.25% samples showed negative chloro alkaline indices ratios with an indirect Base Exchange reaction. In contrast 40.75% samples showed positive chloro alkaline indices indicating a direct Base Exchange reaction. Furthermore 70.37 % sites have (Ca2++Mg2+) >HCO3 - indicating as base exchanged-hardened waters while remaining 29.63% samples have HCO3 - > (Ca2++Mg2+) which may be referred as base exchanged-softened waters. It is recommended that for salinity control adequate arrangement of drainage and selection of crops with good tolerance is to be adopted.

by S.D.DHIMAN
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2014
    Volume - 34, No. - 1
    HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BAITARNI RIVER BASIN
    Subhasis Mitra and Ashok Mishra

    Streamflow and sediment yield response to climate change in the Baitarni river basins (BRB), Eastern India; has been investigated employing SWAT (Soil and Water Asessment Tool) model. Model was calibrated and validated by comparing measured streamflo...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 34, Number 1)

HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGE IN THE BAITARNI RIVER BASIN

Streamflow and sediment yield response to climate change in the Baitarni river basins (BRB), Eastern India; has been investigated employing SWAT (Soil and Water Asessment Tool) model. Model was calibrated and validated by comparing measured streamflow and associated sediment concentration at Anandpur gauging station, located inside the river basin. Climate change impact analyses were performed by- i) assuming scenarios of increased temperature (+2 o C, +4 o C and +6 o C), varied rainfall (?20% at ?5% increment) and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (330 ppm, 495 ppm and 660 ppm); and ii) by extending historical rainfall (1974 to 2004) trend in future from 2005 to 2099. The trend analysis has shown that average annual rainfall at the Baitarni river basin has increased by 8.8 mm per year in the last 30 years which has resulted to an increase in streamflow in the river basin. Climate change sensitivity showed an increasing streamflow to independent increase in rainfall whereas showed decreasing streamflow to decreased rainfall and increased temperature in the basin. The increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations, independently, showed an increase in streamflow. The analysis shows that the water availability at the Baitarni river basin is expected to increase in future under linear increase in rainfall since historic and expected increasing rainfall trend persisting in future. The predicted future scenarios developed by SWAT model gave the normalized daily rainfall distribution and was unable to catch the expected extreme rainfall conditions. This characteristic of predicted rainfall showed that the method used to study and estimate future water resources does not hold good for the estimation of sediment yield.

by Subhasis Mitra and Ashok Mishra
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SRI RAM SAGAR IRRIGATION PROJECT
    Chintalacheruvu Madhusudana Rao and Ravindra Vitthal Kale

    In this study, the performance evaluation of Sri Ram Sagar Project (SRSP) has been carried out through the formulation of a tri-seasonal (kharif, rabi and summer seasons) linear programming model developed using 396 decision variables and 528 constra...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SRI RAM SAGAR IRRIGATION PROJECT

In this study, the performance evaluation of Sri Ram Sagar Project (SRSP) has been carried out through the formulation of a tri-seasonal (kharif, rabi and summer seasons) linear programming model developed using 396 decision variables and 528 constraint equations using 44 years (1950-1993) of historical data. Based on the long term historical data, a suitable operating policy has been developed for the better performance of SRSP reservoir. The results reveal that the release combination (3, 6), i.e., three irrigation releases for kharif season and six irrigation releases for rabi season gives 33 years of satisfaction with 11 deficit years out of the 44 years, which is said to be well within the 75% dependability condition. Hence, it is a practicable case of optimal release combination. Further, no irrigation releases during summer season can be assured. Subsequently, the verification of water use efficiency of the reservoir has also been carried out using the selected performance indicators.

by Chintalacheruvu Madhusudana Rao and Ravindra Vitthal Kale
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW REQUIREMENT APPROACHES USING HYDROLOGICAL INDEX METHODS

The Narmada is the largest west-flowing peninsular river ranks seventh in India in terms of water discharge. A number of dams have been constructed on the Narmada River and its tributaries. As such, a need arises to regulate the reservoirs for releasing the adequate water in the river throughout the year for maintaining downstream ecosystem as well as a flushing flow once in a year to ensure spawning/regeneration of fish and other species in the river/flood plains. Accordingly, it is essential to estimate environmental flows for this river. In the present study, the environmental flow requirement at four gauging sites located in upper part of Narmada river have been carried out using Lookup Tables, Tennant and Modified Tennant method (Tessman method). Modified Tennant method is found to be preferred to estimate the environmental flow requirements, which is more acceptable for allocating EFR on monthly basis. Further, intensive investigations would be necessary to obtain data on ecological needs of the river in order to recommend the realistic values of EFR for this river.

by Alpna Dubey , Deva Kant , Omkar Singh and R.P. Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    OPTIMAL USE OF SURFACE DRAINS FOR ENHANCING GROUND WATER RECHARGE
    Gaurav Goel , Prabhakar Sharma, Ranvir Singh, Baldev Setia

    Growing demand for the fresh Water has resulted in increased exploitation of its limited sources- the foremost of them being the groundwater. Artificial recharge through a network of surface drains can be only of the remedy to this problem. In this p...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

OPTIMAL USE OF SURFACE DRAINS FOR ENHANCING GROUND WATER RECHARGE

Growing demand for the fresh Water has resulted in increased exploitation of its limited sources- the foremost of them being the groundwater. Artificial recharge through a network of surface drains can be only of the remedy to this problem. In this paper, Khepar's model has been used to investigate the effect of drain parameter on the amount of recharge. The parameters which were kept in focus during the investigation were check dam height, number of check dams, bed slope of drain and wetted perimeter of drain. One of the key findings was that the recharge rate is found directly proportional to check dam height, number of check dams, bed slope of drain and wetted perimeter of drain. This formulation can lead to optimization of recharge and consequent raise in water table in addition to effective usage of surface drains.

by Gaurav Goel , Prabhakar Sharma, Ranvir Singh, Baldev Setia
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    MODEL STUDIES FOR EVOLVING HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF BRIDGE ACROSS BRAIDED RIVER
    Sanjay A.Burele

    Bridge development requires careful planning and in-depth study as no undue risk should be taken in its design and construction. Constructing a braided river is still a challenging task. Hydraulic aspects of bridge design mainly consists of selectio...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

MODEL STUDIES FOR EVOLVING HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF BRIDGE ACROSS BRAIDED RIVER

Bridge development requires careful planning and in-depth study as no undue risk should be taken in its design and construction. Constructing a braided river is still a challenging task. Hydraulic aspects of bridge design mainly consists of selection of site, optimum orientation and waterway, location of abutments, design of guide banks, approach banks, and design of piers. Hydraulic model studies were carried out at CW&PRS for the Rail and Road bridges across River Kosi near Nirmali, Bihar ( about 38 km upstream/downstream of Kosi barrage). Various alternatives were analyzed on physical model to arrive at optimum waterway, guide bunds and afflux bunds. Studies were undertaken under existing conditions as well as with proposed bridges for discharge of 22375 m^3/s. and 26900 m^3/s. For waterway of 1.875 km and afflux of 1.35m was observed at the bridge site for discharge of 22375 m^3/s. various trials on the physical model to improve flow conditions at the bridges and to distribute the flow more uniformly through the spans of the bridges by adjusting both guide bund. Construction of Road bridge has been completed and functioning very well. Construction of Rail Bridge is under progress. The present paper describes the hydraulic aspect of various components of the Bridges.

by Sanjay A.Burele
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    A SHORT SCREENING STUDY ON WATER QUALITY OF INDIAN RIVERS AND LAKES
    A.A. Kazmi , Akansha Bhatia , Azfar Shaida , Meena Sharma , Markus Starkl and R. C. Trivedi

    As a crucial subsystem of urban environment, urban rivers and lakes offer many kinds of ecological services which benefit the city dwellers. However, with the growing pace of urbanization and rapid development of economy, urban water pollution proble...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

A SHORT SCREENING STUDY ON WATER QUALITY OF INDIAN RIVERS AND LAKES

As a crucial subsystem of urban environment, urban rivers and lakes offer many kinds of ecological services which benefit the city dwellers. However, with the growing pace of urbanization and rapid development of economy, urban water pollution problems are becoming critical every hour. In order to get an overview of the current water quality, a short screening study on various urban rivers and lakes has been carried out across the country. The aggregate pollution index was assessed in terms of NSF WQI. The condition of most of the urban rivers and lakes are not satisfactory, mainly due to pollution by untreated wastewater. Therefore, it is need of the hour to make provisions for wastewater treatment to meet required water quality targets. A watershed management approach is suggested as most suitable instrument to achieve such an objective. This is a significant task for India, which cannot be achieved in a short period of time, henceforth, a mixed approach comprising of short term (Advanced on-site systems) and medium term (decentralized systems) along with long term (centralized systems) targets need to be adopted for 100% wastewater treatment in urban and peri-urban areas.

by A.A. Kazmi , Akansha Bhatia , Azfar Shaida , Meena Sharma , Markus Starkl and R. C. Trivedi
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 2)

HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING OF XEBANGFAI RIVER BASIN IN LAO PDR: A CASE STUDY USING SWAT MODEL

In this study, a GIS based hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied for modeling the Xebangfai watershed in center part of LAO PDR. The water balance modeling was performed on annual, monthly and daily basis using spatial and temporal data of surface runoff. The climatic data required by the SWAT i.e., daily precipitation, maximum/minimum air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity was used as input for the model to simulate runoff. Besides these data, meteorological data, topographical map, DEM map, soil map, and land use map of the watershed were used as input to the model. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was successfully calibrated and validated for the years 1997-2002 and 2003-2008 respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2 ), Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Index of agreement (d) and relative error (RE) were adopted to evaluate model performance during calibration and validation period. Study indicated that due to high magnitude of precipitation and good water retention capacity, the study area has high potential for agricultural activities.

by Somzay Champathangkham and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 2
    LONG TERM OCEAN WAVE FORECASTING ALONG INDIAN COAST
    R.P. Dubey and Bitanjaya Das

    The knowledge of long term wave climate is of utmost importance for the planning, designing, construction and maintenance of marine structures. Especially for design of coastal structures wave heights with a return period of 50 or 100 years or more i...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 2)

LONG TERM OCEAN WAVE FORECASTING ALONG INDIAN COAST

The knowledge of long term wave climate is of utmost importance for the planning, designing, construction and maintenance of marine structures. Especially for design of coastal structures wave heights with a return period of 50 or 100 years or more is required. Ideally, the determination of extreme waves should be based on the statistical analysis of long term measurements. Since the long term measurements of waves, which occur during the storm, are seldom available, the extreme value analysis for the waves is carried out using extrapolation methods. India Meteorological Department (IMD) provides the record of storms in the form of synoptic charts (pressure distribution) and storm tracks for the moving storm. Storm hind casting analysis were carried out for a site near Mumbai on the West coast and near Puducherry on the East coast of India. A comparative study has been done for the prediction of significant wave heights for these storms using parametric and empirical approaches for both the sites. Extreme wave analysis was done using Gumbel, Weibull and log-normal distribution methods. The source of data, methodology adopted for analysis and the prediction of extreme waves along with analysis are described in this paper.

by R.P. Dubey and Bitanjaya Das
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 2
    EFFECT OF COST ELEMENTS ON OPTIMAL CANAL DESIGN
    Syed Zafar Syed Muzaffar , S.L. Atmapoojya and D.K. Agarwal

    This paper deals with the study of effect of cost elements on optimal canal design i.e. the effect of cost of lining of curve, sides and base of canal section on the cost of optimal canal design. The dimensions of an optimal canal section are determi...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 2)

EFFECT OF COST ELEMENTS ON OPTIMAL CANAL DESIGN

This paper deals with the study of effect of cost elements on optimal canal design i.e. the effect of cost of lining of curve, sides and base of canal section on the cost of optimal canal design. The dimensions of an optimal canal section are determined by microeconomic theory the value of b/y ratio is determined by trial and error method. Influence of various parameters on the design of the lining has been studied, which is achieved by using computer ?C? programming. The graph is plotted total cost of canal section of different values against b/y ratio of the section. The effect of cost of lining of curve, cost of lining of sides, cost of lining of base for different values has been seen from the graph when r = f (y) the b/y ratio increases & total cost increases after the optimal value of cost and similarly b/y ratio decreases the total cost of section increases after the optimal value and when r = constant after optimal value of the section b/y ratio increases, total cost of section increases and b/y ratio decreases the total cost of section increases

by Syed Zafar Syed Muzaffar , S.L. Atmapoojya and D.K. Agarwal
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 2
    CURVE NUMBER AFFECTED BY SLOPE OF EXPERIMENTAL PLOT HAVING MAIZE CROP
    Raj Kaji Shrestha , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey

    Employing the observed natural rainfall-runoff data, this study investigates the effect of slope of experimental plots having maize crop on the resulting runoff curve number, the only parameter of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) m...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 2)

CURVE NUMBER AFFECTED BY SLOPE OF EXPERIMENTAL PLOT HAVING MAIZE CROP

Employing the observed natural rainfall-runoff data, this study investigates the effect of slope of experimental plots having maize crop on the resulting runoff curve number, the only parameter of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) methodology. The soil of field plots of all 1%, 3%, and 5% slopes when tested for infiltration using double ring infiltrometer was found to fall in Hydrologic Soil Group 'C'. For the same soil, land use, and rainfall, CN-values were found to increase with slope, and vice versa.

by Raj Kaji Shrestha , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 2)

STATUS PAPER ON WATER SHORTAGE AND REQUIREMENT OF UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN OF MALWA REGION IN MADHYA PRADESH (INDIA)

For effective planning of available water in the Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh belonging to Upper Chambal Sub-Basin, an attempt is made in the present study through water balance studies using the inflow/ run-off data in the area. The study include estimation of projections of the domestic, live stock, irrigation industrial requirements of the area along with water availability in the Gandhi Sagar Reservoir as well as the ground water resources. The water balance study defines the additional water requirement in the Sub-basin in the year 2050. It has been concluded that the Sub-basin is highly water deficient even on present day. Per capita water availability considering import and export is 212 cum and it will further come down to 121 cum in 2050. The additional requirement of water at 75% dependability in 2011 is 1016 MCM and in 2050 is 2536 MCM.

by Mukesh Chauhan and R.K. Shrivastava
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 3
    COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF RECENTLY DEVELOPED HYDROLOGIC MODELS
    Bir Singh Dhami and Ashish Pandey

    Present study is focused on a comparative evaluation of some recently developed, regularly updated and well documented hydrologic models namely: AnnAGNPS, GSSHA, HYPE, Hec-HMS, MIKE-SHE, PRMS, SWAT, WetSpa, and WinSRM. All these models are public dom...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 3)

COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF RECENTLY DEVELOPED HYDROLOGIC MODELS

Present study is focused on a comparative evaluation of some recently developed, regularly updated and well documented hydrologic models namely: AnnAGNPS, GSSHA, HYPE, Hec-HMS, MIKE-SHE, PRMS, SWAT, WetSpa, and WinSRM. All these models are public domain (freely available) except MIKE-SHE. AnnAGNPS, HYPE, SWAT and WinSRM are continuous simulation models while GSSHA, Hec-HMS, MIKE-SHE, PRMS and WetSpa have both long-term and single event simulation capabilities. In this study, models are evaluated based on: (I) Hydrological processes that the model can simulate, (II) Governing equations used to simulate the hydrologic processes, (III) Minimum data required to run the model and (IV) spatial and temporal scale of the model. This study can be helpful in the selection of suitable model as per the problem at hand and save lots of time required just to know whether the model is suitable or not.

by Bir Singh Dhami and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 1
    SCOUR PROTECTION BY A SLOT THROUGH A MODEL BRIDGE PIER
    Baldev Setia and Upain Kumar Bhatia

    A laboratory investigation has been carried out to determine the scour depth reduction for cylindrical pier models of 80mm and 82mm diameter provided with rectangular slots through them and located in two separate water flumes A and B with sediment 1...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

SCOUR PROTECTION BY A SLOT THROUGH A MODEL BRIDGE PIER

A laboratory investigation has been carried out to determine the scour depth reduction for cylindrical pier models of 80mm and 82mm diameter provided with rectangular slots through them and located in two separate water flumes A and B with sediment 1 (d50=0.16mm, ?g = 1.38) bed and sediment 2 (d50=0.60mm, ?g = 1.72) bed respectively. The types of slots investigated upon were: 0? to 180? (Parallel slot), 0? to +120? (Y-slot), 0? to +90? (T-slot) and 0? to +45? (Sigma slot). Various parameters varied included height of slot, bifurcation angle and some modifications of the slot. Results suggest that a parallel slot and a Y-slot with optimum dimensions as 0.25D wide, 1D above and 0.75D below the sediment bed are able to reduce scour by 50% and 40% respectively. Some better found results were investigated on an oblong pier and in combination with a group of piles as well.

by Baldev Setia and Upain Kumar Bhatia
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 1
    EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF SLOPE ON RUNOFF AND CURVE NUMBERS
    Anubhav Chaudhary , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey

    The present study investigates experimentally the effect of watershed (i.e. field plot of 22mx5m) slope on rainfall-generated runoff and resulting curve numbers (CN) for a given soil (Hydrologic Soil Group C) and land use of sugarcane. As expected, t...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF SLOPE ON RUNOFF AND CURVE NUMBERS

The present study investigates experimentally the effect of watershed (i.e. field plot of 22mx5m) slope on rainfall-generated runoff and resulting curve numbers (CN) for a given soil (Hydrologic Soil Group C) and land use of sugarcane. As expected, the plot of 5% slope yielded the largest runoff and, in turn, CN compared to those due to the plots of 3% and 1% grades, for the same rainfall, soil, and land use. The derived CN values are fairly close to those from NEH-4 CN-values, supporting the applicability of NEH-4 CN values to Indian watersheds.

by Anubhav Chaudhary , S.K. Mishra and Ashish Pandey
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT IN 2006 AMAN SEASON AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY THE FARMERS: A CASE STUDY IN RAJSHAHI DISTRICT (BANGLADESH)

Although the droughts are common in the north-west region of the country, especially in the Barind Tract, not much is known about the mitigation measures adopted by the farmers. This study was accomplished with a view to assess the drought of T. Aman season of 2006 and farmers? management practices of drought alleviation at Godagari Upazila in Rajshahi district. The time and extent of drought was calculated by using the water balance and relative water supply methods. The probability analysis of rainfall and crop water requirement was carried out by Gamma distribution. Drought affected yield was estimated by using crop production function. A farmers? survey was conducted to gain information on drought affected yields, farmers? management practices of drought alleviation and related socio-economic issues. From the water balance analysis it was found that three droughts occurred during the T. Aman season of 2006: one drought of six days duration and another of four days duration during vegetative and reproductive stages, respectively and one drought of sixteen days duration during the ripening stage. The average values of RWS were 0.60 in vegetative stage, 0.66 in reproductive stage and 0 in ripening stage. Both the analyses showed that severe drought occurred during the ripening stage of T. Aman in 2006. From probability analysis, it was observed that the probability of rainfall that occurred during the T. Aman season of 2006 is about 20% (once in about five years). From the farmers? survey, it was revealed that during 2006, 75% of the farmers used supplementary irrigation for T. Aman production. The average yield was 4.05 M. ton/ha for the farmers who provided supplementary irrigation and drought affected yield was 1.64 M. ton/ha. The drought affected yield calculated from crop production function was 1.65 M. ton/ha. Actual drought affected area during 2006 T. Aman season was estimated as about 13% of the Aman cultivated area. The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of supplementary irrigation from surface water and ground water were 4.10 and 5.88, respectively. The farmers? survey showed that supplementary irrigation was the only socially acceptable management practice of drought alleviation in the study area. The study reveled that due to the application of supplementary irrigation, droughts do not severely affect the T. Aman yield.

by Mst. Irin Parvin and Abul Fazal M. Saleh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 1
    ESTIMATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION WITH ANN TECHNIQUE
    M. U. Kale , M. B. Nagdeve and S. J. Bagade

    To identify the best alternative method to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo), performances of various ANN architectures and two climate based methods namely Penman? Monteith (P-M) (FAO-56) and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) model, were compared wi...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

ESTIMATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION WITH ANN TECHNIQUE

To identify the best alternative method to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo), performances of various ANN architectures and two climate based methods namely Penman? Monteith (P-M) (FAO-56) and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) model, were compared with FAO-24 Pan evaporation model. Practical based pan evaporation method (FAO-24) was taken as standard method. The ANN architectures formulated using varied input combinations of climatic variables, were trained using backpropagation algorithm i.e. Levenberg-Marquardt with sigmoid function. Performances of these methods were evaluated using the statistical indices i.e. mean standard error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r). The results confirmed that when all climatic data is available, Penman-Monteith method is the best indirect method for daily ETo estimation. The ANN (2-2-1; input parameter - air temperature and wind speed only) with an r of 0.94 and RMSE of 0.48 mm day-1 estimated fairly accurate ETo. The climate based Hargreaves-Samani model overestimated the ETo by about 112%. Hence, ANN (2-2-1) topology should be used to estimate fairly accurate ETo when data pertaining to climatic parameters is insufficient to apply standard ETo estimation methods.

by M. U. Kale , M. B. Nagdeve and S. J. Bagade
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2013
    Volume - 33, No. - 1
    PLANNING FOR OPTIMUM USE OF WATER RESOURCES OF MRP COMPLEX USING MIKE BASIN
    S.K. Jaiswal , M. K. Verma and Mohan Gupta

    This paper deals with the application of simulation software ?MIKE BASIN? (2009) for optimum utilization of water resources of MRP Complex. Mahanadi Reservoir Project (MRP) Complex is a multipurpose multi-reservoir system. It consists of Mahanadi bas...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

PLANNING FOR OPTIMUM USE OF WATER RESOURCES OF MRP COMPLEX USING MIKE BASIN

This paper deals with the application of simulation software ?MIKE BASIN? (2009) for optimum utilization of water resources of MRP Complex. Mahanadi Reservoir Project (MRP) Complex is a multipurpose multi-reservoir system. It consists of Mahanadi basin and Pairi basin. This project comprises of four reservoirs. There is inter-basin transfer of water from Sondur reservoir in Pairi basin to Dudhawa reservoir in Mahanadi basin through a feeder canal. MIKE BASIN has extensive reservoir modeling capabilities, and accommodate multi-purpose reservoirs and multiple reservoir systems. The philosophy behind MIKE BASIN is to keep modeling simple and intuitive, yet provide in-depth insight for planning and management. In this paper, an attempt has been made to decide the strategies for optimum use of water available in the reservoirs of MRP Complex. There are three possible ways of supplying water from the two upstream reservoirs to the Ravishankar reservoir. These three ways of supplying water has been simulated in MIKE BASIN and designated as three models. The simulation has been run for twenty one years (1975 to 1995) historical data. To check the efficiency of models the annual deficit between demand and supply has been computed for each model. The results of these three models have been compared with the results of earlier reported optimization model. The total deficit for twenty one years was found minimum in the first model hence this is the efficient model. First Model is then run for recent data (1996-2008). The model is working well for the recent data (1996-2008).

by S.K. Jaiswal , M. K. Verma and Mohan Gupta
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 33, Number 1)

SUITABILITY OF DISTRIBUTED SCS-CN MODEL FOR NARMADA BASIN: A CASE STUDY OF URI RIVER SUB-BASIN

Estimation of watershed runoff accurately has been a challenge for water resource managers and planner especially for large river basins. Inflow forecasting in the series of multipurpose reservoirs constructed in Narmada river basin shall be useful for maximization of hydropower generation to its optimum capacity. The accuracy in predicting the surface runoff becomes more imperative in case of large watersheds like river Narmada basin. In the present study, alternate options of spatially distributed SCS-CN model and modified SCS-CN model have been applied in the Uri river basin. The daily runoff has been computed under three conditions; (i) by considering area weighted average CN and rainfall, (ii) spatially distributed CN and rainfall with Ia/S ration as 0.2 and (iii) considering average CN and rainfall with Ia/S ratio as 0.05. The analysis shows that the computed runoff are more close to the observed runoff, if runoff is computed by considering area weighted average CN and average rainfall in lower Narmada river basin.

by T. R. Nayak and S. M. Narulkar
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

WATER QUALITY AND EUTROPHICATION STATUS OF THE RENUKA LAKE, DISTRICT SIRMAUR (H.P.)

The regular monitoring and assessment of lake water quality and its eutrophication is very important for proper conservation and management purposes. Water quality monitoring and analysis of the Renuka lake was carried out for various physico-chemical, bacteriological and trace elements during 2006 to 2008. The principal component analysis of 26 water quality parameters was performed which reveals seven principal components (eigen values greater than 1) explaining 86% of variability. These components are: (i) TDS, (ii) Hardness, (iii) Bacteriological (FC & TC), (iv) Eutrophication (Phosphate, Nitrate), (v) Dissolved Oxygen, (vi) Cadmium, and (vii) BOD, respectively. The lake water quality was assessed as per BIS standards for drinking purpose, which has shown the mean concentration of total coliform, faecal coliform, iron, manganese, lead and cadmium beyond the permissible limits for drinking purpose. The eutrophication of the Renuka lake follows a decreasing trend from hypertrophic to eutrophic indicating necessity of regular measures for conservation and restoration.

by Omkar Singh and M.K. Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSE, DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

The ground water quality of District Nainital has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two part series paper. In an earlier paper, we have examined the suitability of ground water for drinking purpose. This paper examines the suitability of ground water for irrigation applications. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analysed for various water quality characteristics. The suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose has been evaluated based on salinity, Sodium Adsorption Ration (SAR), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and boron content. In general the ground water of District Nainital is safe for irrigation purpose. According to U.S. Salinity Laboratory classification of irrigation water, about 90 % of the samples fall under water type C2-S1, such water can be safely used if a moderate amount of leaching occurs and plants with moderate salt tolerance can be grown in most cases without special practices for salinity control. About 10% samples fall under water type C3-S1, such water cannot be used on soils with restricted drainage. Even with adequate drainage special management for salinity control may be required and plants with good tolerance should be selected.

by C. K. Jain , A. Bandyopadhyay and A. Bhadra
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

INTER-COMPARISON OF REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ESTIMATED USING SIX METHODS WITH DATA FROM FOUR CLIMATOLOGICAL STATIONS IN INDIA

Evapotranspiration includes both evaporation from land surface and transpiration of water from plants, and constitutes a major component of hydrologic cycle. Therefore, its accurate estimation is of vital importance for hydrologic studies. Six empirical methods for calculating ET, namely, Hargreaves (Temperature based), FAO-24 Radiation, Priestley-Taylor and Turc (Radiation Based) and FAO-24 Penman and Kimberly-Penman (Combination) were evaluated using meteorological data from four climatological stations (Jagdalpur, Bombay, Bellary and Kharagpur) to determine the best and worst method for each location. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values estimated by all methods were compared with the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith ETo estimates, which were taken as the standard. Based on the Standard Error Estimates, the FAO-24 radiation method ranked first for the Jagdalpur and Bombay stations. The 1982 Kimberly-Penman ranked first for Kharagpur and Bellary.

by Biju A. George and N. S. Raghuwanshi
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

QUANTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE USING VISUAL HELP IN SONAR SUB-BASIN OF MADHYA PRADESH

In the present study, the groundwater recharge has been estimated at various locations in the Sonar sub-basin, which falls in the Bundelkhand region of the Madhya Pradesh. This basin is subjected to recurrent droughts. Although the basin receives good rainfall, it faces acute shortage of water due to uneven distribution of rain, and there exists scope of rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge for augmentation of water resources. In the present study, site specific recharge rates have been estimated using the Visual HELP model. The model uses soil profile data, vegetation information and weather data. The estimated natural groundwater recharge at twelve identified locations in the Sonar sub-basin is found to vary between 157 to 349 mm/year. The results of this study will be useful for the planning and management of groundwater resources of the Sonar sub-basin.

by Surjeet Singh, C.P. Kumar, Anupma Sharma and Rajan Vatsa
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

PREDICTION FOR IMPROVEMENT IN AGRICULTURE POTENTIAL AND FERTILITY OF SOIL IN NAJAFGARH AREA

The HRSEZ is proposing to occupy an area of 25000 acres of land partly in Gurgaon district and mostly in Jhajjar district. The Groundwater moves from all the directions towards the area. Hence water logging is very common feature in this region. According to agricultural qualities, the study area can be divided into several small areas namely Brick kiln, Ravines, High Salinity, Ravine Based agricultural land, Water logged and Deep Water Table Lands. The major portion of the study area is barren and not suitable for agriculture. Only 15% of the land area is under agricultural which is waterlogged too. Sub surface water logging could be identified as the major constraint to crop production. The water logging reduced the ear number and hence is the major contributor towards the yield difference. The ear numbers accounted for 66.6% of yield differences in cereals. The introduction of the canal system in Jhajjar District is mainly responsible for the existing water logging condition and soil salinization in 16% of the area. This is due to rising water table of saline water in major parts. Though this problem has assumed a serious proportion yet it is still possible to tackle it with careful planning. The Water Level Fluctuation in the area free from water logging is about 5m and in the water logged area the Water Level Fluctuation is very small amounting to 10-15cm. After establishment of HR-SEZ, there would be a requirement of 400-500 MLD of water. This would create a ground water trough in the region. Water logging can be removed due to this. The water level fluctuation in these areas would increase. For every 1m increase in Water Level Fluctuation, there would be about 33% increase in crop yield. Therefore for 5m increase in Water Level Fluctuation, there would be further increase in crop production. Apart from this after development of HR-SEZ, the amount of recycled water would be 480 MLD, which can irrigate much greater area than is possible presently. The quality of this water would be high in nitrogen and phosphorous which would increase the fertility of the soil which ultimately increase the crop production and types. In this way the creation of HR SEZ will not only beneficial to the industrialization but also good to the agriculture in the surrounding areas.

by Gauhar Mahmood , Ghazala Ishrat , Rajiv Kumar , Mahesh Agarwal
Read More
 
Read More
  • Oct, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 3
    INTER-LINKING OF INDIAN RIVERS-NEED AND IMPORTANCE
    R.K. Sivanappan

    India is one of the few countries in the world endowed with reasonable land and water resources. Being a monsoon country the rainfall is erratic, unevenly distributed and hence water scarcity in some parts and floods in other parts frequently occur. ...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 3)

INTER-LINKING OF INDIAN RIVERS-NEED AND IMPORTANCE

India is one of the few countries in the world endowed with reasonable land and water resources. Being a monsoon country the rainfall is erratic, unevenly distributed and hence water scarcity in some parts and floods in other parts frequently occur. In order to produce to feed the expected population of 1650 M in 2050, there is a need to bring about 150 M Ha under irrigation from 100 M Ha at present. As more than 65% of the flow in the rivers is not utilizable and goes to sea every year, it is necessary to interlink all the rivers in the North and South to provide water to the deficit basins. Government has created a National Water Development Agency (NWDA) to study and implement the programme. The perspective plan comprises two components namely i) Himalayan rivers Development and ii) Peninsular rivers development. Of this the 2nd component can be implemented since NWDA has conducted feasibility survey, and estimates prepared to some basins. The excess water of east flowing rivers is proposed to bring to the South and the west flowing flood water to transfer to the east to irrigate drought affected areas. The Supreme Court has directed Government of India in the year 2002 and again in 2012 to implement the interlinking of rivers in a time bound programme by constituting a panel. This paper analyses the water resources of the country and the priority items for interlinking of rivers to fulfill the needs of the southern States particularly Tamil Nadu which is facing severe water scarcity.

by R.K. Sivanappan
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 1
    ESTIMATING REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING NEURAL COMPUTING TECHNIQUE
    Seema Chauhan and R. K. Shrivastava

    This paper investigates the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimation of reference crop evapotranspiration with climatic data required for Penman-Monteith (P-M) method, to test artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimating refe...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

ESTIMATING REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING NEURAL COMPUTING TECHNIQUE

This paper investigates the potential of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimation of reference crop evapotranspiration with climatic data required for Penman-Monteith (P-M) method, to test artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) with limited climatic data (ETo) and compares the performance of ANNs with P-M method. The ANNs are trained to estimate ETo from weekly climate data as input and the Penman-Monteith (P-M) estimate as output. The networks, using varied input combinations of climatic variables have been trained using three backpropagation learning algorithms namely quasi-Newton algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and Backpropagation with variable learning rate. Firstly the networks were trained with weekly climate data (maximum and minimum temperature, maximum and minimum relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine hours) as input and the P-M estimate as output. Then the networks, using varied input combinations of climatic variables have been trained using the same training algorithms as mentioned above. For each class of inputs, the best ANN architecture for estimation of ETo was selected on the basis of statistical parameters like square estimates of error (SEE) and model efficiency. The analyses suggest that the ETo can be computed from limited climate data using the ANN approach in Mahanadi Reservoir Project (MRP) command area. Further based on the results obtained, it can also be concluded that ANN performed well when the input (first) layer receives the input variables consisting of all quantities that can influence the output.

by Seema Chauhan and R. K. Shrivastava
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN PREDICTION OF RESPONSE OF FARMERS? WATER MANAGEMENT DECISIONS ON WHEAT YIELD

Water scarcity is a global problem and the best solution to tackle this problem is to make efficient use of the available water to increase the productivity of the available water resources. It is estimated that nearly 50 percent of potential water saving comes from the water management practices. Water management usually involves decision-making with respect to allocation, scheduling and application of the available water to different crops over an irrigation season so as to get maximum economic returns. A study was carried out in Kaithal irrigation circle for prediction of farmers? decisions on crop yields using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Artificial Neural Network models have shown considerable potential for resolving some of the problems related with irrigated agricultural systems, which are complex, non-linear and ill defined. ANNs have shown potential uses in three types of applications in the field of irrigated agriculture including image analysis techniques for identification and classification of agricultural clusters, decision support systems for management, and predictions of various processes. Different ANN algorithms (back-propogation, Levenberg-Marquardt and radial basis function) and architecture were used for prediction of farmers decision on crop yield and it was found that radial basis function with spread constant 0.1 performed better for prediction of wheat and rice yields. It was also found that that ANN algorithm predicted better for both wheat and rice crops in comparison to statistical regression model as obtained coefficient of determination in case of ANN was much higher for (r2 =0.63) than regression model (r2 =0.32).

by M.K. Hardaha , S.S. Chouhan and S.K. Ambast
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 1
    ESTIMATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FOR WHEAT CROP USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
    Santosh Ojha and Sita Ram Bhakar

    The study has been undertaken to investigate the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comparison of daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated by Penman-Monteith (PM) method and that of estimated by ANNs during growing season of w...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

ESTIMATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FOR WHEAT CROP USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

The study has been undertaken to investigate the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comparison of daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated by Penman-Monteith (PM) method and that of estimated by ANNs during growing season of wheat crop. Feed forward network has been used for prediction of ET0 using resilient back-propagation method. For the purpose of the study, daily meteorological observations such as minimum and maximum temperature, minimum and maximum relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation for the period of November 21, 1997 to March 2, 1998 were used as input and ET0 estimated by Penman -Monteith method for growing season of wheat crop as output. The comparisons were made between ANNs estimated ET0 and ET0 estimated using PM method. The correlation coefficient between actual and predicted ET0 during training of ET0 for growing season of wheat crop was found to be 0.990 which was found to be significant at 5 % level. The networks were also used for computation of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). During training of ETc, crop coefficient values estimated by quadratic method have been taken as input to the network along with meteorological parameters and ETc estimated using crop coefficient approach and that of measured by lysimeter as output separately. The crop evapotranspiration estimated by ANNs were compared with ETc estimated by crop coefficient approach and that of evapotranspiration measured by lysimeter. The correlation coefficients during training of ETc of wheat crop were found to be 0.994 and 0.915 respectively which were also found significant at 5 % level. Based on these comparisons, it can be concluded that the ANN models is suitable for prediction of ET0 and ETc

by Santosh Ojha and Sita Ram Bhakar
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 1
    ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY STATUS OF HOLY RIVER KSHIPRA USING WATER QUALITY INDEX
    R.C. Gupta , Ajay K. Gupta and R.K. Shrivastava

    In this paper attempt is being made to assess the water quality of Kshipra, a holy river flowing through Ujjain city. Parameters namely Temperature, pH, Turbidity, Total Solids, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate, Ammon...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY STATUS OF HOLY RIVER KSHIPRA USING WATER QUALITY INDEX

In this paper attempt is being made to assess the water quality of Kshipra, a holy river flowing through Ujjain city. Parameters namely Temperature, pH, Turbidity, Total Solids, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate, Ammonia and Fecal Coliform ( F.C.) were determined at important locations of River Khan and Kshipra for summer, monsoon and winter seasons in the year 2010. Assessment was made through Water Quality Index (WQI), a single number representing large quantities of data. US National Sanitation Foundation WQI was calculated for each set of data with and without Phosphate parameter. The results shows that Kshipra River water is of medium to bad quality and Khan River water is the major cause of pollution in Kshipra River. The study also revealed that Kshipra River water is unsuitable even for bathing.

by R.C. Gupta , Ajay K. Gupta and R.K. Shrivastava
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL PATTERN OF RAINFALL TRENDS IN PARAMBIKUALAM ALIYAR SUB BASIN, TAMIL NADU

This study aims to determine trends in the annual and seasonal total rainfall over Parambikulam Aliyar sub basin of Tamil Nadu using 37 years (1972-2008) monthly rainfall data at four rain-gauge stations (Aliyar Nagar, Pollachi, Vettaikaranpudur and Anamalai). The procedure is based on the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for the trend and the nonparametric Sen?s method for the magnitude of the trend. Significant positive trend was observed at Anamalai station for annual and North East monsoon rainfall series and significant negative trend has been noticed in the South West monsoon of Vettaikaranpudur. The maximum increase of rainfall out of four stations was experienced by Anamalai in annual rainfall (22.47 mm/year) and maximum reduction was found for Vettaikaranpudur (-6.14 mm/year) in South West monsoon. The presence of trend in annual and seasonal rainfall series determined by Mann-Kendall Z statistics and Sen?s Slope estimator reflected in the linear regression analysis.

by M. Manikandan and D. Tamilmani
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 1
    PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE PLUNGING HOLLOW JETS
    Rakesh Gupta , Subodh Ranjan and A. M. Kalra

    The phenomenon of plunging jet entrainment and the resultant aeration has been described by a jet of water plunging into a pool resulting in substantial amounts of air entrainment and oxygenation. The rate of oxygen transfer and oxygen transfer effic...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE PLUNGING HOLLOW JETS

The phenomenon of plunging jet entrainment and the resultant aeration has been described by a jet of water plunging into a pool resulting in substantial amounts of air entrainment and oxygenation. The rate of oxygen transfer and oxygen transfer efficiency are the two main parameters which are used for quantifying the performance of an aerator and for comparison of two or more aerators. The present study has been carried out to quantify the performance of 60? curved?shaped single jet aerator, two multiple jet aerators with two and three aerating units for varying discharge ranged from 2.0 l/s to12.5 l/s with uniform jet thicknesses of 20 mm and 25 mm. The performance of single jet aerator is observed to be better for low discharge range only while multiple aerator with two aerating units performed better for higher discharge values. The multiple jet aerator with three aerating units is envisaged to be better for a higher discharge range and a larger water surface area.

by Rakesh Gupta , Subodh Ranjan and A. M. Kalra
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2012
    Volume - 32, No. - 1
    METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT ASSESSMENT IN BARAPANI, MEGHALAYA
    Lala I.P. Ray , P.K. Bora , V.Ram , A.K. Singh , R. Singh and S.M. Feroze

    In rain-fed agriculture, rainfall has a crucial role to play for suitable crop planning. Twenty eight years (1983-2010) daily rainfall data has been analysed to find out weekly, monthly, seasonal and yearly meteorological drought occurrence at Barapa...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 32, Number 1)

METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT ASSESSMENT IN BARAPANI, MEGHALAYA

In rain-fed agriculture, rainfall has a crucial role to play for suitable crop planning. Twenty eight years (1983-2010) daily rainfall data has been analysed to find out weekly, monthly, seasonal and yearly meteorological drought occurrence at Barapani station of Ri-Bhoi district, Meghalaya. The average annual rainfall of Barapani worked out to be 2,410.40 mm (coming under high rainfall region). The observed frequency of drought was the highest in 28th week in a tune of 11 times; month of December to a tune of about 14 times. Based on rainfall analysis it was found that during 28 years no scanty drought year was experienced. However, there was one moderate drought year which corresponds to the year 1998. Critical dry spells expected to occur during 26th to 28th week of the year.

by Lala I.P. Ray , P.K. Bora , V.Ram , A.K. Singh , R. Singh and S.M. Feroze
Read More
 
Read More
  • Oct, 2011
    Volume - 31, No. - 3
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 31, Number 3)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2011
    Volume - 31, No. - 1
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 31, Number 1)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 3)

CHARACTERIZATION OF STREAM-AQUIFER SYSTEM AND DYNAMICS OF STREAM-AQUIFER INTERACTION IN KATHAJODI RIVER BASIN, ORISSA

Sustainable management of groundwater resources is the key concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. The present study was carried out in the Kathajodi River basin of Orissa, which is a typical river island surrounded by the Kathajodi River and its branch Surua River. It included streamflow analysis, hydrogeologic investigation, pumping tests and exploration of stream-aquifer interaction dynamics. The results of 4 years streamflow analysis indicated that the river flow is highly seasonal and it reduces to almost no flow during summer, thereby threatening river ecosystem. The lithologic analysis revealed that the study area is dominated by a confined aquifer system comprising medium to coarse sand. The aquifer exists at depths ranging from 15 to 50 m and its thickness ranges from 20 to 55 m over the basin. The analysis of time-drawdown pumping test data at 9 sites indicated aquifer hydraulic conductivity varying from 11.25 to 96.80 m/ day, which suggests significant aquifer heterogeneity. The results of the correlation analysis of groundwater levels with river stage and rainfall indicated a higher correlation between groundwater levels and river stage (r = 0.67-0.89) than that between groundwater level and rainfall (r = 0.33-0.66). This finding suggests a strong river-aquifer interaction in the basin.

by S. Mohanty, Madan K. Jha , Ashwani Kumar and B. K. James
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT OF RECENT DAM/ EMBANKMENT BREAK EVENTS IN INDIA

CONSEQUENT UPON ORISSA SUPER CYCLONE, GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE AND END OF INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF NATURAL DISASTER REDUCTION(IDNDR), GOVT. OF INDIA RECOGNIZED DISASTER MANAGEMENT AS A DEVELOPMENT ISSUE. IT WAS REALIZED THAT "WHILE HAZARDS, BOTH NATURAL OR OTHERWISE, ARE INEVITABLE, THE DISASTERS THAT FOLLOW NEED NOT BE SO AND THE SOCIETY CAN BE PREPARED TO COPE WITH THEM EFFECTIVELY WHENEVERTHEY OCCUR" AND CALLED FOR A "MULTI- PRONGED STRATEGY FOR TOTAL RISK MANAGEMENT, COMPRISING PREVENTION, PREPAREDNESS, RESPONSE AND RECOVERY, ON THE ONE HAND, AND FOR INITIATING DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS AIM TOWARDS RISK REDUCTION AND MITIGATION , ON THE OTHER HAND ". ONE SUCH POSSIBLE DISASTER SCENARIO PERTAINS TO DAM/EMBANKMENT BREAK SITUATIONS, WHOSE ANALYSIS WOULD HELP US TO RE-ORIENT OURSELVES TO DEAL WITH DAM/EMBANKMENT BREAK SCENARIO MORE EFFECTIVELY IN EVOLVING DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE COUNTRY. ACCORDINGLY, ACTUAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN FOUR DISTINCT DAM BREAK SITUATIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS, VIZ., PARECHU LANDSLIDE DAM (INTERNATIONAL LEVEL), PRATAPPURA DAM(LOCAL MUNICIPAL CORPORATION LEVEL), JASWANT SAGAR DAM( STATE IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT LEVEL), IN RECENT PAST(2005 ONWARDS) AND MORE RECENTLY NARMADA MAIN CANAL (PROJECT LEVEL) WERE ANALYZED. THE LESSONS LEARNED HELPED US TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE AREAS OF STRENGTHENING SO THAT THE PEOPLE IN THE DOWNSTREAM AREAS CAN BE ASSURED OF EFFECTIVE AND TIMELY ACTIONS IN EMERGENCY CASES FOR PROTECTION OF THEIR LIVES AND PROPERTIES.

by M.K. SINHA, S.M. NARULKAR
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2010
    Volume - 30, No. - 2
    MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF THE WATERSHED USING GIS
    S.K. Sharma, G.S. Rajput, S. Tignath and R.P. Pandey

    The Geomorphological characteristics of a Watershed are more commonly used for developing the regional hydrological models for solving the various hydrological problems of the ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations.Therefore,in the study m...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF THE WATERSHED USING GIS

The Geomorphological characteristics of a Watershed are more commonly used for developing the regional hydrological models for solving the various hydrological problems of the ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations.Therefore,in the study morphometric analysis and prioritization of eight sub-watersheds of Uttala river watershed, which is a tributary of Son river considered for this study.The morphometric parameters considered for analysis are Stream order, Stream length, Stream frequency, Drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, Elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio. After analysis of morphometric parameters compound parameter values are calculated and prioritization rating of eight sub-watershed is carried out. The sub-watershed two has lowest compound parameter value 2.63 is likely to be subjected to a maximum soil erosion; hence it requires immediate attention for provisions of soil conservation measures.

by S.K. Sharma, G.S. Rajput, S. Tignath and R.P. Pandey
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

PREDICTION OUT FLOW FROM A MOUNTAINOUS WATERSHED USING LINEAR RESERVOIR ROUTING CONCEPT

The Rainfall runoff transformation on Watershed scale is a complex process showing non-linear relationships between various hydrologic components.A simplified approach with reasonably accurate simulations has assumed it to be a time invariant and black-box system exposed to a single-humped input and producing a single lumped output. Consequently, the linear models have received considerable attention for modeling the rainfall -runoff process due to reasonably accurate simulations. This study was undertaken to predict the direct runoff based on the conceptual linear reservoir routing approach having a single parameter(storage coefficient) for the Gagas Sub-watershed of Ramganga river catchment in Uttarakhand, India. The proposed model simulates with reasonably good accuracy the overflow from the hilly watershed to facilitate planning and design of various soils and water conservation and irrigation and drainage structures in mountainous areas with limited hydrological data. A simple routing equation has been proposed to derive the instantaneous unit hydro graph, which can be used to produce the unit graph and the direct runoff hydro graph by using the convolution integral

by Anil Kumar, Henendra Singh and Deepank Verma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR CRITICAL AREAS OF CHHOKRANALA WATERSHED USING SWAT MODEL AND GIS

A distributed parameter model, the soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested on monthly and seasonal basis and used for developing management scenarios for the critical sub Watersheds of a small agricultural watershed of Chhattisgarh ( Chhokranala ). The Watershed and sub Watershed boundaries, drainage networks, soap and soil textures maps were generated using GIS. Supervised classification method was adopted for land use/cover classification from satellite imagery using ERDAS Imagine.Manning's 'n' for overland and channel flow and Fraction of Field Capacity (FFC) were calibrated for monsoon season of the years 2002 to 2003. The model was validated for the years 2004 to 2005. Results revealed that the model was predicting the monthly and seasonal surface runoff and sediment yield satisfactorily. Simulation results of nutrients including organic N and P in sediment and NO3-N and soluble P in runoff were also compared with observed data for several events and found satisfactory. The critical sub-watersheds were identified on the basis of average annual sediment yield and nutrient losses during the study period. Out of seven sub-Watersheds. SWS-6 and SWS-& were found to be critical. Several combinations of treatment options were considered which included four crops, five tillage and three levels of fertilizers. The existing management practice was considered as the base for evaluating other management practices for rice. The results showed other crops couldn't replace rice since these crops resulted in higher sediment yield as compared to rice. Considering both sediment and nutrient losses together the zero tillage, conservation tillage and field cultivator with half dose of fertilizers were found to be better than the other treatments considered for evaluating their impact on sediment yield and nutrient losses for sub-watershed(SWS-5).

by Narendra Agrawal, M.K. Verma and M.P. Tripathi
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2010
    Volume - 30, No. - 2
    ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL SPATIAL AND VOLUMETRIC PRECIPITATION IN THE KLAMATH BASIN
    K.L. ROSCOE, W.W. WALLENDER, H.CARLSON AND N.S. RAGHUWANSHI

    A model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution and volume of annual precipitation using Precipitation measurements at a single gage. The study area comprises the watershed of the Klamath River above Keno, Oregon, The model was developed b...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 2)

ESTIMATION OF ANNUAL SPATIAL AND VOLUMETRIC PRECIPITATION IN THE KLAMATH BASIN

A model was developed to estimate the spatial distribution and volume of annual precipitation using Precipitation measurements at a single gage. The study area comprises the watershed of the Klamath River above Keno, Oregon, The model was developed by determining large-scale orographic regions in the study area using the Parametric-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Within each orographic region, PRISM-modeled time-averaged precipitation values were used to calculate a linear average precipitation-elevation model. These average models were used to develop an annual precipitation model for all locations and for all years for which there were measurements at the Klamath precipitation gage. Modeled precipitation was compared to measured precipitation at each gage in the study area, showing that modeled precipitation in three of the four orographic regions was accurate. Average historic flow, prior to the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath project, was estimated by correlating volumetric precipitation with flow in the Klamath River at Keno from 1930-1997(post project) and compared with the measured flow from 1905-1912(pre-project). Statistical tests showed that the pre and post project flows were significantly different, while the pre and post project precipitation valves were not shown to be significantly different. The average pre-project volumetric precipitation and flow at Keno were 7.63 * 109 m*3 and 1.73 * 10*3 m*3 respectively. This flow value is six percent lower than the value 1.83 * 10*9 m*3. obtained by Hecha and Kammam(1996). The application of Klamath Basin(KB) precipitation model in filling the gaps in data sets at all gages with the study area showed that the model estimates were good for all region 4. The methodology used here can be used to extend the precipitation records at the other stations based on the extensive data of one station.

by K.L. ROSCOE, W.W. WALLENDER, H.CARLSON AND N.S. RAGHUWANSHI
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2010
    Volume - 30, No. - 1
    PROTECTION OF BRIDGE ABUTMENTS FROM SCOUR
    V. K. Sarda

    The failure of bridges due to excessive abutment scour causes high maintenance cost or even the bridge collapse resulting in interruption of traffic as well as casualties to life. Hence ability to protect bridge abutment from scour is critical to bri...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 30, Number 1)

PROTECTION OF BRIDGE ABUTMENTS FROM SCOUR

The failure of bridges due to excessive abutment scour causes high maintenance cost or even the bridge collapse resulting in interruption of traffic as well as casualties to life. Hence ability to protect bridge abutment from scour is critical to bridge safety. Review showed that there are two approaches to scour mitigation viz. bank hardening and flow-altering. Selection of a countermeasure involves life cycle cost assessment for the particular site along with social and environmental issues. However, their application for mobile bed and in compound channels is still to be established.

by V. K. Sarda
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN A WATER DEFICIT STATE
    M. L. Jat*, P. M. Jain, S. K. Sharma and L. K. Jain

    Resource Conservation Technologies (RCT?s) are getting momentum for off-farm testing and advance research and development work. The participatory evaluation of agricultural work priorities in Rajasthan indicate that conservation and its efficient uti...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN A WATER DEFICIT STATE

Resource Conservation Technologies (RCT?s) are getting momentum for off-farm testing and advance research and development work. The participatory evaluation of agricultural work priorities in Rajasthan indicate that conservation and its efficient utilization is the major priority of work to be done in the sector of agricultural research and development. The water available on the earth constitutes a very small proportion of the total amount of water available. Increasing population, growth of industries and socio-economic development are putting more and more pressure on available water resources. Further, the distribution of water is highly uneven over space and time. Rajasthan state is perhaps the driest state in the country. It has got average annual rainfall of about 575.1 mm. The economically utilizable surface water availability in the state is 16.05 billion cubic metre at 50 percent dependability in addition to external water resources available from other states which is 17.88 billion cubic metre. Mean annual natural replenishable ground water is 7.413 billion cubic metres in the state. Out of this, 10.09 billion cubic metre of surface water has been harnessed by existing projects and 1.85 billion cubic metre of surface water is expected to be harnessed by ongoing schemes. The state has 136 lac hectares of irrigable area which shall require about 100 billion cubic metre of water for irrigation which is not available obviously. Considering the availability, state has proposed to irrigate only 51.28 lac hectares of land. If only harnessed water is considered, per capita availability of water is only 600 cubic metre which is very low compared to minimum per capita requirement of 1000 cubic metre. In view of the water scarcity being faced by the state, comprehensive and integrated planning of development of surface and ground water is needed. High priority needs to be accorded to efficient water supply system, use of water saving devices and improved irrigation practices. Special attention is required to be given to traditional rain water harvesting and conservation techniques and re-use of waste water and also strategies to bridge the gap between available and what can be used is discussed.

by M. L. Jat*, P. M. Jain, S. K. Sharma and L. K. Jain
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    ESTIMATION OF REVISED CAPACITY IN SHETRUNJI RESERVOIR USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
    T. Thomas* , R. K. Jaiswal, R.V. Galkate and S. Singh

    Efficient reservoir management calls for periodic assessment of its capacity. Capacity surveys of reservoirs are important to assess sedimentation for optimum reservoir operation schedule based on realistic assessment of available storage. The silt w...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

ESTIMATION OF REVISED CAPACITY IN SHETRUNJI RESERVOIR USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

Efficient reservoir management calls for periodic assessment of its capacity. Capacity surveys of reservoirs are important to assess sedimentation for optimum reservoir operation schedule based on realistic assessment of available storage. The silt which gets deposited at different levels of reservoir reduces its storage capacity and useful life. The reduction in the storage capacity beyond a limit prevents the reservoir from fulfillment of the purpose for which it is designed. Periodical capacity surveys of reservoir help in assessing the rate of sedimentation and reduction in storage capacity. The conventional methods of sediment assessment are laborious, costly, time consuming and require experienced manpower and sophisticated instruments. Under such circumstances, remote sensing approach for estimation of revised capacity can be used for routine assessment of sedimentation of reservoirs. In the present study, assessment of revised capacity of Shetrunji reservoir in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat which is a multipurpose medium project has been carried out using digital image analysis of remote sensing data. For the study, seven LISS III scenes of IRS 1D/P6 have been selected to cover the whole range of live storage. The normalized difference water index (NDWI), image ratioing and slicing have been used to distinguish water pixels from rest of the pixels. The revised water spreads have been used to estimate revised capacity at different levels. From the study it has been observed that 120.66 M. cum of gross storage and 97.17 M. cum of live storage have been lost in last 42 years (1965 to 2007). The catchment area up to the dam site of the Shetrunji reservoir being 4317 km2 , the silting rate in common unit is computed to be 6.66 ha-m/100 km2 /year. The present rate of siltation from 2000 to 2007 is 4.29 M. cum/year which is 65% more than the rate of siltation of 2.59 M. cum/year during the period from impoundment to 2000.

by T. Thomas* , R. K. Jaiswal, R.V. Galkate and S. Singh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    EXCESS?DEFICIT ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL FOR UMAIAM (BARAPANI), MEGHALAYA
    P. P. Dabral, Pankaj Pandey , S. Debnath , S. Tado and R.P. Singh

    In the present study excess-deficit analysis of rainfall was carried out for Umaiam (Barapani), Meghalya. Three commonly used probability distribution function (normal, lognormal and gamma) were tested on weekly rainfall and evaporation data by compa...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

EXCESS?DEFICIT ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL FOR UMAIAM (BARAPANI), MEGHALAYA

In the present study excess-deficit analysis of rainfall was carried out for Umaiam (Barapani), Meghalya. Three commonly used probability distribution function (normal, lognormal and gamma) were tested on weekly rainfall and evaporation data by comparing the chi square values. For weekly rainfall and evaporation data, all three distributions were found to be best fitted for different weeks. At 60 and 90% probability levels expected rainfall is scare in week nos. 1 to 12 and 43 to 52. For 10% to 50% probability level expected rainfall is not scare. Expected value of evaporation varied from 3.7 mm to 57.1 mm at 10% probability levels and from 1.8 mm to 27. 9 mm at 90% probability levels for all the weeks. From water management planning point of view 30% and 40 % risk levels can be adopted. At 30% risk level, there was deficit of rainfall from week nos. 1 to 21, 24, 26 28, 30 to 33 and 46 to 52. Total computed deficit was 126.2 mm. Excess of rainfall was observed during week nos. 22, 24, 27, 29, 33 to 39. Therefore, drainage is required during that period. Total computed excess of rainfall was 126.2mm. At 40% risk levels there was deficit of rainfall in week nos. 1 to 17, 19-22, 23, 26, 28, 40-52. Total computed deficit was 434.4 mm. Excess of rainfall was in week nos. 18, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29 to 39. Therefore, drainage is required during that period. Total computed excess rainfall was 169.1mm. In order to minimize the risk of crop failure due to lack of rain in the region, it is advisable that irrigation schedule is planned at 30 % risk level. Irrigation planning based on 30 % risk level may increase the lost of irrigation but will have less risk of crop failure.

by P. P. Dabral, Pankaj Pandey , S. Debnath , S. Tado and R.P. Singh
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

IMPACT OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ON GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING MODELLING TECHNIQUE

Wagarwadi watershed of Parbhani district falls under semi-arid tropics of basaltic terrain. During the research study, the water balance components were analysed to find out the ground water recharge, which is the main input to the aquifer MODFLOW. Well characteristics like transmissivity and specific yield were determined by carrying out the pumping test. The computed water levels and computed well hydrographs were derived by simulating the water harvesting structures as lake interaction model and thus the aquifer MODFLOW has been developed. The average annual rainfall estimated, surface runoff and ground water recharge from the watershed are 987.92 mm, 299.35 mm and 130.62 mm, respectively under normal agro-climatic condition. The percentage of mean annual ground water recharge and surface runoff to rainfall worked out to be 13.22 and 30.3 per cent, respectively. In the observation wells, which are in the close vicinity of soil and water conservation measures, the observed water levels were closely matching with the computed water levels. While in the wells located at the downstream side of the harvesting structures, the observed water levels were found to be higher by 1 to 3 m as compared to computed water levels due to additional seepage for restricted area.

by S. L. Suryawanshi and M. S. Pendke
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REFERENCE CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FOR SOUTH WEST PLAINS OF UTTARAKHAND

The analysis of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) for the south western plains of Uttarakhand adopting different methods was carried out in the present study using the weather data viz. cloud cover (okta) as X1 , minimum temperature (o C) as X2 , maximum temperature (o C) as X3 , wind velocity (km/day) as X4 , wind direction (o ) as X5 , maximum RH (%) as X6 and minimum RH (%) as X7 of Roorkee. Result shows that the USWB pan evaporation can be calculated using the regression equation; Ep avg. (mm/day) = 1.55 + 0.05 X1 + 0.13 X2 + 0.09 X3 + 0.37 X4 - 0.22X5 - 0.034 X6 - 0.032 X7 . In order to improve the usefulness of the Penman-Monteith method in crop water requirements for the south western Uttarakhand and make the results comparable to Modified Penman and Radiation methods, an adjustment factor or fresh and exclusive Kc values needs to be developed.

by S.K. Tripathi and Bissar Chintamanie
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL IN JALPAIGURI DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL
    A.P. Unde , B. C. Mal and V.M.Chowdary

    Groundwater potential of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal was assessed using water balance approach. Groundwater balance equation proposed by Chandra and Saxena (1975) was adopted for the present study. In this approach, different components such a...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL IN JALPAIGURI DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

Groundwater potential of Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal was assessed using water balance approach. Groundwater balance equation proposed by Chandra and Saxena (1975) was adopted for the present study. In this approach, different components such as recharge from rainfall, subsurface inflow-outflow, groundwater draft, recharge from canals and streams, seepage to the streams, recharge from irrigation water, evapotranspiration losses and groundwater storage change were considered. Analyzing the data, total usable groundwater in nine blocks of Jalpaiguri District was found to be 921.3 Mm3. Different groundwater structures like shallow tubewells, dug wells and deep tubewells are being used to withdraw only 116.2 Mm3 of groundwater at present. Therefore, there is ample scope of further utilization of groundwater for irrigating more area.

by A.P. Unde , B. C. Mal and V.M.Chowdary
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    IMPACT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER TRANSFORMATIONS ON ALEMAYA LAKE, ETHIOPIA
    Shimelis Gebriye Setegn , Fikadu Yohannes , Shoeb Quraishi , V.M.Chowdary and B.C.Mal

    Alemaya lake located in Eastern highlands of Ethiopia has been severely degraded and transformed during the last few decades, due to agricultural activities. In this study, aerial photographs acquired during the years 1965,1996 and 2002 were interpre...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

IMPACT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER TRANSFORMATIONS ON ALEMAYA LAKE, ETHIOPIA

Alemaya lake located in Eastern highlands of Ethiopia has been severely degraded and transformed during the last few decades, due to agricultural activities. In this study, aerial photographs acquired during the years 1965,1996 and 2002 were interpreted to quantify and spatially characterize the spatial and thematic information concerning the major land use/cover types of the Alemaya watershed. From the spatio temporal analysis of the data, permanent decrease of the lake surface area has been observed during the period 1965 ?2002. The surface area of the lake that was around 393.6 ha in the year 1965 has been reduced to 226 ha within a span of 37 years. Due to lack of directives on the use of land and water resources in the area, it is observed that the lands adjacent to the lake are constantly cultivated which aggravated the process of soil erosion and increased the sedimentation of the lake. A large quantity of water in excess of annual recovery is being withdrawn for irrigating the adjacent fields by using a number of centrifugal pumps without taking into consideration the crop water demand. This is endangering the survival of the lake itself.

by Shimelis Gebriye Setegn , Fikadu Yohannes , Shoeb Quraishi , V.M.Chowdary and B.C.Mal
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jul, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 3
    PRIVATIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY AN INAPPROPRIATE SOLUTION IN INDIAN CONTEXT
    S.K. Lunkad, Gulab Singh Narwal and Anita Sharma

    Drinking water crisis in major Indian cities, including the Pink City of Jaipur, is rising day by day and is expected to phenomenally increase by 2020. Cities located on the peninsular hard rock terrain are hit hard Some cities in the alluvial plains...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 3)

PRIVATIZATION OF WATER SUPPLY AN INAPPROPRIATE SOLUTION IN INDIAN CONTEXT

Drinking water crisis in major Indian cities, including the Pink City of Jaipur, is rising day by day and is expected to phenomenally increase by 2020. Cities located on the peninsular hard rock terrain are hit hard Some cities in the alluvial plains too are no exception. Privatization of water sector does not seem to bring any improvement in the supply of minimum quantity of safe domestic water to urban and rural poor. Proliferation of bottled-water industry based mainly on groundwater will aggravate the situation further. Enhancing the supply of indigenously purified water by the Govt. public health departments is the only remedial measure that can be suggested in the existing socio-economic setup in India.

by S.K. Lunkad, Gulab Singh Narwal and Anita Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GRAM EVAPOTRANSPIRATION UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF UDAIPUR

Stochastic modelling of gram evapotranspiration was carried out using 26 years (1978? 2003) data of Udaipur. Out of twenty six year data 24 year data were used for model development and remaining two year data were used for its validation. The trend tests indicated that the evapotranspiration series is trend free. The periodic component of evapotranspiration can be represented by second harmonic expression. The stochastic components of the evapotranspiration follow third order Auto Regressive (AR) model. Validation of generated evapotranspiration series was done by comparing generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series. The correlation coefficient between generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series was found to be 0.99. The correlation was tested by t-test and found to be highly significant at 1 per cent level. The standard error (0.06 mm) is quite low. The regression equation is very near to 1:1 line. Therefore, developed model can be used for future prediction of gram evapotranspiration series

by Kuldeep A. Jadhav and S. R. Bhakar
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED MODELING OF STREAM FLOWS FOR SINDH BASIN IN MADHYA PRADESH

An artificial neural network with a feed forward back propagation algorithm has been employed for development of the model in the Sindh basin up to Madhikheda dam site. The daily rainfall and stream flow data for a period of 9 years from 1992 to 2001 has been used for training and testing the model. It has been found that a feed forward neural network with a single hidden layer and five neurons in the hidden layer is sufficient to model the stream flows at the dam site. The efficiency of the model varies between 70.36 % and 94.57 % with an overall efficiency of 85.14 % during calibration and between 63.02 % and 92.76 % with an overall efficiency of 84.42 % during validation. The percentage difference between the observed and computed peak flow during the calibration and validation period varies between 1.335 % and 0.319 % respectively. The correlation coefficient between the observed and computed flow series varies between 0.79 and 0.97. The ability of the three layer artificial neural network to relate the rainfall to the runoff response of the Sindh river basin up to Madhikheda dam site is demonstrated

by T. Thomas, R.K. Jaiswal, R.avi Galkate and Surjeet Singh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    A MICRO LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ? A CASE STUDY
    Samanpreet Kaur, Rajan Aggarwal, Sudhir Thamanand Manish Kumar

    Water is most vital input in agriculture and has made a significant contribution in providing stability to food grain production. This resource can be optimally used and sustained only when quantity and quality of water is assessed. Efficient managem...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

A MICRO LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ? A CASE STUDY

Water is most vital input in agriculture and has made a significant contribution in providing stability to food grain production. This resource can be optimally used and sustained only when quantity and quality of water is assessed. Efficient management of water resources relies on a comprehensive database. Thus, the present study was aimed to assess the total available water resources at the block level during Kharif and Rabi season in Ludhiana district and it was calculated that the total available water resource in the district was 619734.0 ha-m out of which 446813.7 ha-m (72%) in Kharif season and 170866.5 ha m (28%) in Rabi season. The maximum water availability is in Jagraon (2.09 m) followed by Ludhiana (1.88 m) and Dehlon (1.76 m) and minimum water availability is in Mangat (1.37 m) followed by Pakhowal (1.46 m) and Sudhar (1.48 m). In Ludhiana district rainfall and groundwater contributes 40% and 50% respectively to the total water resources while the remaining 10% is contributed by canal water.

by Samanpreet Kaur, Rajan Aggarwal, Sudhir Thamanand Manish Kumar
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    COMPARISON OF T-YEAR RAINFALL USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS APPROACH
    N. Vivekanandan

    Estimation of rainfall for a desired return period is one of the pre-requisite for planning and operation of various hydraulic structures. Frequency analysis approach is the effective and expedient tool for estimation of rainfall. This paper gives de...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

COMPARISON OF T-YEAR RAINFALL USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS APPROACH

Estimation of rainfall for a desired return period is one of the pre-requisite for planning and operation of various hydraulic structures. Frequency analysis approach is the effective and expedient tool for estimation of rainfall. This paper gives details of a study involving the use of frequency analysis approach adopting six statistical distributions for estimation of rainfall for different return periods for Kakrapar, Roha and Sudhagad sites. Goodness-of-Fit tests like Chisquare and Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used for checking the adequacy of fitting of the distributions to the recorded annual daily maximum rainfall data. Diagnostic test involving D-index is used for selection of appropriate distribution for rainfall estimation. The paper presents the 2-parameter Gamma distribution is found to be suitable among six distributions for estimation of rainfall for the data under study.

by N. Vivekanandan
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING ANN: KANKAIMAI WATERSHED, NEPAL
    Mekhnath Sharma , Zulfequar Ahmad and Nayan Sharma

    The present paper deals with the prediction of daily runoff and sediment yield from Kankaimai watershed at Mainachuli, Nepal using ANN and regression models. Vegetational and geomorphologic analysis of the watershed reveals that Kankaimai watershed i...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING ANN: KANKAIMAI WATERSHED, NEPAL

The present paper deals with the prediction of daily runoff and sediment yield from Kankaimai watershed at Mainachuli, Nepal using ANN and regression models. Vegetational and geomorphologic analysis of the watershed reveals that Kankaimai watershed is fairly good watershed with moderately peak flow of shorter duration. The basin is predominantly covered by sparse and medium vegetation and have moderately high rate of soil erosion. The land area covered by dense vegetation is comparatively less, which results in the formation of more numbers of streams. ANN and regression models were developed to predict daily runoff and sediment yield from the Kankaimai watershed using daily runoff and sediment yield data for the years 2001- 2003 for the monsoon season. ANN runoff model consisting of concurrent rainfall of three rain gauges and past one and two days runoff performs better than the other models in the terms of statistical and graphical indicators. Like wise ANN sediment yield model of the input parameter concurrent runoff is better than the other models. Regression runoff and sediment yield models were also developed using the same input vectors used in ANN models.

by Mekhnath Sharma , Zulfequar Ahmad and Nayan Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

TEMPORAL CHANGES IN RAINFALL OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN WEST MIDNAPORE DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

Monsoon rains are the backbone of Indian economy as rural livelihood solely dependents on good monsoon rains. Well distributed monsoon rains over the season support the production and prosperity of rural society. In recent decades the changes in rainfall occurrence and distribution has affected society in terms of frequent floods, droughts and/or insufficient rains to cultivate the crops even in monsoon season. Therefore we studied the changes in rainfall pattern as a possible result of changed climate over the West Midnapore district of West Bengal. The characteristics of rainfall frequency and intensity over the region, covered under 4 grids of 1 o x 1 o , have been statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variance and anomaly. The monthly, seasonal and annual grided data for 54 years (1951 to 2004) has been used to establish the rainfall frequency and intensity pattern as a result of proclaimed changing climate. The results indicate that annual frequency as well as the intensity of rainfall has increased in last 50 years. However, month wise analysis showed that both the rainfall intensity and frequency has an increasing trend for the months of June, July and August but September month showed spatial changes and decreasing trend. There is also an increase in high rainfall events, which might be a result of climate change, and resulting frequent flood conditions with less availability of water for crops. Results are enumerating to explore the adoptability of climate change in terms of changed rainfall pattern

by Ashok Mishra and Chandranath Chatterjee
Read More
 
Read More
  • Jan, 2009
    Volume - 29, No. - 1
    BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM COTTONSEED & PONGAMIA OIL
    M.P. Sharma

    Indiscriminate use of fossil fuels coupled with serious gaseous emissions has led to the search for alternative to diesel fuel in recent years. Among oil resources, cotton seed & Pongamia oil were choosen to investigate the kinetics of transesterific...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 29, Number 1)

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM COTTONSEED & PONGAMIA OIL

Indiscriminate use of fossil fuels coupled with serious gaseous emissions has led to the search for alternative to diesel fuel in recent years. Among oil resources, cotton seed & Pongamia oil were choosen to investigate the kinetics of transesterification for conversion to biodiesel (methyl/ethyl ester). The paper reviews the transesterification, effect of various parameters, oils and biodiesel properties with emphasis on the kinetics of reactions as well as techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction of conversion from Triglycerides (TG) to Diglycerides (DG) is fastest, slower from Diglycerides to Monoglycerides (MG) & slowest from MG to methyl ester and glycerine. It is evidenced by the kinetic data that at 70?C & 6:1 molar ratio, the value of K1 to K3 increases while K4 -K6 decreases in the case of cotton seed oil while value of K1 -K6 decreases in the case of Pongamia oil giving only 56% and 69% yield of ME respectively. Further increase in molar ratio to 9:1 results in 70% yield of ME in both the cases. Under optimum conditions of temp. & molar ratio of methanol to oil (70?C at 6:1), the cotton seed & Pongamia oil yielded 0.688 kg biodiesel / kg of both the oils, but poor yield of biodiesel (0.070 kg) from cotton seed compared to Pongamia oil (0.30 kg/kg of oil). A techno economic analysis of various oils indicated that cost of production of biodiesel is minimum from Pongamia (Rs. 10.50) and maximum from sesame oil (Rs. 54/-) with Rs. 14.22/- from cottonseed oil compared to diesel (Rs.38/- per liter).

by M.P. Sharma
Read More
 
Read More

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 28, Number 1)

SCHEDULING OF IRRIGATION FOR WHEAT IN A SEMI-HUMID TROPICAL CANAL COMMAND USING WATER BALANCE APPROACH

Incorporating soil dryness coefficient, site specific crop coefficient, daily rainfall and reference crop evapotranspiration and allowable depletion limits for various stages of growth, scheduling of irrigation and the crop water requirement for wheat crop in an irrigation command in semi-humid tropical region of Orissa (India), is estimated using water balance approach. The water balance sheet prepared on daily basis using MS Excel is much flexible and user friendly with provision to modify each input variable as per actual site and management requirements. The crop water requirement thus computed comes out to be 4 % less than those estimated using conventional crop coefficient approach.

by Prabeer Kumar Parhi , S.K. Mishra and Ranvir Singh
Read More
 
Read More
  • Oct, 2007
    Volume - 27, No. - 3
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 27, Number 3)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
  • Apr, 2007
    Volume - 27, No. - 1
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 27, Number 1)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
  • Oct, 2006
    Volume - 26, No. - 3
    Journal of Indian Water Resources Society
    IWRS

    The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the...

1969 Dec

Issue (Volume No. 26, Number 3)

Journal of Indian Water Resources Society

The World confronts the coupled threats of climate change, resource sustainability, and pollution. Water resources are inextricably linked to these challenges, and the benefits and implications of water research are of key interest to the public, the scientific community, international agencies, and government institutions. To restate the obvious that water is the basis of life and the engine for social and economic growth,The Indian Water Resources Society attempts to address such challenges. The Indian Water Resources Society is thus dedicated to the advancement of the science and technology of water resources development and management.

by IWRS
Read More
 
Read More
Membership Required

Only paid member's can view generals, Please contact administrator for membership.